1. Masseter muscle sonographic features as indices for evaluating efficacy of massage treatment.

Ariji Y, Katsumata A, Hiraiwa Y, Izumi M, Sakuma S, Shimizu M, Kurita K, Ariji E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20868996

 

Source

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology,Aichi-Gakuin University School of Dentistry, Nagoya, Japan. yoshiko@dpc.agu.ac.jp

Erratum in

  • Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 Dec;110(6):809.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to clarify the sonographic features of the masseter muscle as indices for judging the efficacy of massage treatment.

STUDY DESIGN:

Fifteen patients with temporomandibular disorder (10 with unilateral and 5 with bilateral muscle pain) underwent massage treatment alternately on the bilateral masseter and temporal muscles with an oral rehabilitation robot. Sonography was performed before and after treatment, and the masseter thickness and existence of anechoic areas were evaluated.

RESULTS:

The thickness on the symptomatic side in the unilateral group significantly decreased after treatment. Anechoic areas were shown in 20 muscles (66.7%) before treatment, and disappeared or were reduced in size in 17 muscles (85.0%) after treatment. The pretreatment thickness was significantly related to visual analog scale (VAS) scores regarding posttreatment muscle pain and massage impression. The existence of anechoic areas was relevant to VAS scores regarding muscle pain.

CONCLUSION:

Masseter thickness and existence of anechoic areas might be related to the therapeutic efficacy regarding muscle pain.

Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:

20868996

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

2. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of a Single Session of Swedish Massage on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Immune Function in Normal Individuals.

Rapaport MH, Schettler P, Bresee C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809811

 

Source

1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center , Los Angeles, CA.

Abstract

Abstract Objectives: Massage therapy is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with 8.7% of adults receiving at least one massage within the last year; yet, little is known about the physiologic effects of a single session of massage in healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of a single session of Swedish massage on neuroendocrine and immune function. It was hypothesized that Swedish Massage Therapy would increase oxytocin (OT) levels, which would lead to a decrease in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and enhanced immune function. Design: The study design was a head-to-head, single-session comparison of Swedish Massage Therapy with a light touch control condition. Serial measurements were performed to determine OT, arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocytes markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production. Setting: This research was conducted in an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Subjects: Medically and psychiatrically healthy adults, 18-45 years old, participated in this study. Intervention: The intervention tested was 45 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy versus a light touch control condition, using highly specified and identical protocols. Outcome measures: The standardized mean difference was calculated between Swedish Massage Therapy versus light touch on pre- to postintervention change in levels of OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results: Compared to light touch, Swedish Massage Therapy caused a large effect size decrease in AVP, and a small effect size decrease in CORT, but these findings were not mediated by OT. Massage increased the number of circulating lymphocytes, CD 25+ lymphocytes, CD 56+ lymphocytes, CD4 + lymphocytes, and CD8+ lymphocytes (effect sizes from 0.14 to 0.43). Mitogen-stimulated levels of interleukin (IL)-1ss, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-gamma decreased for subjects receiving Swedish Massage Therapy versus light touch (effect sizes from -0.22 to -0.63). Swedish Massage Therapy decreased IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 levels relative to baseline measures. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that a single session of Swedish Massage Therapy produces measurable biologic effects. If replicated, these findings may have implications for managing inflammatory and autoimmune conditions.

PMID: 20809811

[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

3. Back massage therapy promotes psychological relaxation and an increase in salivary chromogranin A release.

Noto Y, Kudo M, Hirota K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20683736

 

Source

Department of Nursing, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki 036-8563, Japan.

Abstract

Massage therapy promotes psychosocial relaxation, reduces stress and has been reported to improve the immune function. As such, massage therapy is currently used in palliative care for the relief of anxiety and pain. Although psychosocial status has been evaluated using subjective psychological tests, such as State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), subjective psychological tests are of limited value if the subjects fail to report reliably. Salivary biomarkers have been recently suggested as useful objective markers for assessing psychosocial status. To determine whether salivary biomarkers are useful objective indices for assessing the effects of back massage on the mental status of 25 young healthy female volunteers, we measured heart rate and salivary biomarkers (α-amylase activity, cortisol, and chromogranin A) and assessed the STAI score before and after the back massage. Back massage significantly reduced the heart rate and STAI; however, salivary amylase and cortisol levels did not change. In contrast, the level of salivary chromogranin A significantly increased. We therefore conclude that changes in the salivary biomarkers tested here may not indicate changes in psychological status following massage therapy. However, the increase in chromogranin A release may contribute to the immunologically beneficial effects of massage therapy as chromogranin A has antibacterial and antifungal activity.

PMID: 20683736

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

4. Clinical massage and modified Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation stretching in males with latent myofascial trigger points.

Trampas A, Kitsios A, Sykaras E, Symeonidis S, Lazarou L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673857

 

Source

Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. atrampas@phed.auth.gr

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the immediate effects of modified Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching (group I) versus Myofascial Trigger Point (MTrP) therapy plus modified PNF stretching (group II) in comparison to a control group receiving no treatment.

DESIGN:

Randomized, assessor-blind, (3 x 4) mixed-model repeated measures.

SETTING:

University laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS:

Thirty physically active males with tight hamstrings and at least one latent MTrP on muscles innervated by the lumbosacral, sciatic, tibial and common peroneal nerves.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Knee range of motion (ROM), stretch perception, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and subjective pain intensity. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, immediately after treatment, at 10 and 30 min.

RESULTS:

Significant changes over time occurred for group II in all outcomes (p < or = 0.001). Group II also showed lower pain intensity scores than group I immediately post-treatment (p = 0.045) and a strong clinical effect over group I in ROM at all follow-ups (effect sizes = 0.9-1.0, p < or = 0.05). Other differences were found between both stretching groups as compared to the control group (p < or = 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

The results indicate immediate pre- to post-treatment benefits from MTrP therapy combined with modified PNF stretching in young and physically active males with latent MTrPs.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20673857

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

5. Acute changes in biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation after Thai traditional massage.

Saetung S, Chailurkit LO, Ongphiphadhanakul B.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649054

 

Source

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama 6 Rd, Rajthevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. ssaetung@hotmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mechanical loadings by active exercise or passive low amplitude vibration have been demonstrated to enhance bone mass or delay bone loss. Traditional Thai massage can be anabolic to bone due to the application of physical loading on the body in a rhythmic fashion.

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover immediately after the massage.

MATERIAL AND METHOD:

Subjects consisted of 30 healthy females aged 20-40 years. Each subject received Thai traditional massage for 2 hours by a single masseuse. Bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx-I) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

RESULTS:

There was a 4.8% increase in serum P1NP concentrations after massage (median 43.4 ng/ml vs. 41.3 ng/ml, p < 0.05). Serum CTx-I also decreased after massage (median 2-hour vs. baseline 0.29 ng/ml vs. 0.31 ng/ml, p < 0.05). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between the percentage change in serum P1NP and BMD at the total femur (r = -0.37, p = 0.056) whereas the statistically significant correlation disappeared between percentage change in bone turnover and the other sites of BMD.

CONCLUSION:

Thai traditional massage induces acute changes in bone formation and resorption markers. Study on the more prolonged effects of Thai traditional massage is warranted to explore its implication in the enhancement of bone health.

PMID: 20649054

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

6. Physiological responses to touch massage in healthy volunteers.

Lindgren L, Rundgren S, Winsö O, Lehtipalo S, Wiklund U, Karlsson M, Stenlund H, Jacobsson C, Brulin C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638912

 

Source

Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Sweden. lenita.lindgren@nurs.umu.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate effects of touch massage (TM) on stress responses in healthy volunteers.

METHODS:

A crossover design including twenty-two (mean age=28.2) healthy volunteers (11 male and 11 female) cardiac autonomic tone was measured by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Stress hormone levels (cortisol) were followed in saliva. We also measured blood glucose and serum insulin. Extracellular (ECV) levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol were followed using the microdialysis technique (MD). TM was performed on hands and feet for 80 min, during control, participants rested in the same setting. Data were collected before, during, and after TM and at rest. Saliva cortisol, serum glucose, and serum insulin were collected before, immediately following, and 1 h after intervention or control, respectively.

RESULTS:

After 5 min TM, HR decreased significantly, indicating a reduced stress response. Total HRV and all HRV components decreased during intervention. Saliva cortisol and insulin levels decreased significantly after intervention, while serum glucose levels remained stable. A similar, though less prominent, pattern was seen during the control situation. Only minor changes were observed in ECV levels of glucose (a decrease) and lactate (an increase). No significant alterations were observed in glycerol or pyruvate levels throughout the study. There were no significant differences between groups in ECV concentrations of analyzed substances.

CONCLUSIONS:

In healthy volunteers, TM decreased sympathetic nervous activity, leading to decreased overall autonomic activity where parasympathetic nervous activity also decreased, thereby maintaining the autonomic balance.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20638912

[PubMed - in process]

 

7. Therapeutic massage of the neck and shoulders produces changes in peripheral blood flow when assessed with dynamic infrared thermography.

Sefton JM, Yarar C, Berry JW, Pascoe DD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590481

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20578393

 

Source

Neuromechanics Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA. jmsefton@auburn.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study's objective was to determine the effect of therapeutic massage on peripheral blood flow utilizing dynamic infrared thermography in a constant temperature/humidity thermal chamber to assess noncontact skin temperature.

DESIGN:

The design was a repeated-measures crossover experimental design; the independent variable was treatment condition (massage, light touch, control).

SETTING:

The study setting was a university research laboratory.

SUBJECTS:

Seventeen (17) healthy volunteers (8 males/9 females; age = 23.29 +/- 3.06) took part in the study.

INTERVENTIONS:

One (1) 20-minute neck and shoulder therapeutic massage treatment was performed for each of the three treatment conditions.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

The dependent variable was noncontact, mean skin temperature in 15 regions measured at 6 time points (pretest and 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 minutes post-test) for each treatment condition.

RESULTS:

The massage treatment produced significant elevations in temperature in five regions: anterior upper chest (p = 0.04), posterior neck (p = 0.0006), upper back (p = 0.0005), posterior right arm (p = 0.03), and middle back (p = 0.02). Massage therapy produced significant increases in temperature over time, compared to the other conditions, in the anterior upper chest, and posterior neck, upper back, right arm, and the middle back. Additionally, the temperatures remained above baseline levels after 60 minutes. Interestingly, the massage treatment produced significant temperature elevations in two nonmassaged areas posterior right arm and middle back.

CONCLUSIONS:

These changes in temperature suggest corresponding changes in peripheral blood flow in the treated areas as well as in adjacent not-massaged areas. Moreover, the results suggest dynamic infrared thermography as a useful tool to measure noninvasive, noncontact changes in peripheral blood flow for massage therapy research.

PMID: 20590481

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Impact of a mechanical massage on gene expression profile and lipid mobilization in female gluteofemoral adipose tissue.

Marques MA, Combes M, Roussel B, Vidal-Dupont L, Thalamas C, Lafontan M, Viguerie N.

 

Source

Inserm, UMR 1048, Obesity Research Laboratory, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine Institute, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Abstract

Background: Gluteofemoral adipose tissue areas are known to be poorly metabolically reactive. Mechanical massage has previously been reported to show morphological and functional impact on this tissue. The present study was carried out to delve more deeply into the mechanistic considerations regarding the incidence of a mechanical massage technique on gene expression profile and β-adrenergic-mediated lipid mobilization in female femoral adipose tissue. Methods: Twelve premenopausal healthy women were included and received 12 sessions of calibrated mechanical massage (Endermologie®). Total RNA was extracted from femoral adipose tissue biopsies for gene expression studies. Microdialysis was carried out in the femoral adipose tissue in order to assess lipolytic responsiveness (via glycerol determination) and changes in local blood flow following perfusion of a lipolytic agent, isoproterenol. Evaluations were performed before and after the 6-week experimental period. Results: Mechanical massage initiated important modifications in gene expression profile. The lipid-mobilizing effect of isoproterenol was enhanced after the experimental period. Basal local blood flow and isoproterenol-induced vasodilatation were also improved. Conclusion: The protocol of mechanical massage used in the study promoted noticeable changes in the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways. The lipolytic and local adipose tissue blood flow responses initiated by isoproterenol were significantly enhanced.

Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 21577019

[PubMed - in process]

 

9. Short-duration massage at the hamstrings musculotendinous junction induces greater range of motion.

Huang SY, Di Santo M, Wadden KP, Cappa DF, Alkanani T, Behm DG.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20543728

 

Source

The School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada.

Abstract

Massage for the purpose of health dates back to early civilization and more recently has been used in the management and prevention of sport injuries. Massage has also been used as part of a warm-up to help increase acute flexibility. However, the physiological benefits and mechanisms of massage are not well known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of 3 massage conditions on hip flexion range of motion (ROM). This experimentation involved a novel massage technique, which focused the massage on the musculotendinous junction for a short duration. Ten recreationally active women ranging from 21 to 36 years in age participated in this study. Participants were subjected to 3 massage conditions (no massage, 10-second massage, and 30-second massage) in a random order on separate days. Hip flexion angle, passive leg tension, and electromyography (EMG) were measured thrice before and within 10 seconds after the intervention. A main effect for conditions was found with the 30-second massage providing a 7.2% increase in hip flexion ROM that was significantly greater than the control condition (p < 0.05). Significant interactions occurred with an increased ROM (p < 0.05) from pre to posttests of 5.9 and 7.2% for the 10- and 30-second massage conditions, respectively. There were no significant differences in passive tension or EMG for any conditions or time. With a significant increase in hip angle and no associated increase in passive tension or EMG, there is a suggestion that 10 and 30 seconds of musculotendinous massage induces greater ROM through a modified stretch perception, increased stretch tolerance, or increased compliance of the hamstrings. Musculotendinous massage may be used as an alternative or a complement to static stretching for increasing ROM.

PMID: 20543728

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Effects of Traditional Japanese Massage Therapy on Gene Expression: Preliminary Study.

Donoyama N, Ohkoshi N.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21595543

 

Source

1 Course of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tsukuba University of Technology , Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan .

Abstract

Abstract Objectives: Changes in gene expression after traditional Japanese massage therapy were investigated to clarify the mechanisms of the clinical effects of traditional Japanese massage therapy. Design: This was a pilot experimental study. Settings/location: The study was conducted in a laboratory at Tsukuba University of Technology. Subjects: The subjects were 2 healthy female volunteers (58-year-old Participant A, 55-year-old Participant B). Interventions: The intervention consisted of a 40-minute full-body massage using standard traditional Japanese massage techniques through the clothing and a 40-minute rest as a control, in which participants lie on the massage table without being massaged. Outcome measures: Before and after an intervention, blood was taken and analyzed by microarray: (1) The number of genes whose expression was more than double after the intervention than before was examined; (2) For those genes, gene ontology analysis identified statistically significant gene ontology terms. Results: The gene expression count in the total of 41,000 genes was 1256 genes for Participant A and 1778 for Participant B after traditional Japanese massage, and was 157 and 82 after the control, respectively. The significant gene ontology terms selected by both Participants A and B after massage were "immune response" and "immune system," whereas no gene ontology terms were selected by them in the control. Conclusions: It is implied that traditional Japanese massage therapy may affect the immune function. Further studies with more samples are necessary.

PMID: 21595543

[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

11. The effects of precompetition massage on the kinematic parameters of 20-m sprint performance.

Fletcher IM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386129

 

Source

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Bedfordshire, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom. iain.fletcher@beds.ac.uk

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect precompetition massage has on short-term sprint performance. Twenty male collegiate games players, with a minimum training/playing background of 3 sessions per week, were assigned to a randomized, counter-balanced, repeated-measures designed experiment used to analyze 20-m sprints performance. Three discrete warm-up modalities, consisting of precompetition massage, a traditional warm-up, and a precompetition massage combined with a traditional warm-up were used. Massage consisted of fast, superficial techniques designed to stimulate the main muscle groups associated with sprint running. Twenty-meter sprint performance and core temperature were assessed post warm-up interventions. Kinematic differences between sprints were assessed through a 2-dimensional computerized motion analysis system (alpha level p <or= 0.05). Results indicated that sprint times in the warm-up and massage combined with warm-up conditions were significantly faster than massage alone. Also, step rate and mean knee velocity were found to be significantly greater in the warm-up and massage combined with warm-up modalities when compared to massage alone. No significant differences were demonstrated in any measures when the warm-up and massage and warm-up combined conditions were compared. Massage as a preperformance preparation strategy seems to decrease 20-m sprint performance when compared to a traditional warm-up, although its combination with a normal active warm-up seems to have no greater benefit then active warm-up alone. Therefore, massage use prior to competition is questionable because it appears to have no effective role in improving sprint performance.

PMID: 20386129

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

12. Effects of ice massage on pressure pain thresholds and electromyography activity postexercise: a randomized controlled crossover study.

Anaya-Terroba L, Arroyo-Morales M, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Díaz-Rodríguez L, Cleland JA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20350675

 

Source

Department of Physical Therapy, Health Sciences School, Universidad Granada, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ice massage postexercise on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) over the quadriceps muscle and the electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS).

METHODS:

Fifteen athletes (female, 8; age, 19 +/- 2 years) participated. Subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 2 separate occasions with a 1-week interval between sessions. Participants performed 5 isokinetic concentric dominant knee extension contractions at 60 degrees , 120 degrees , 180 degrees , and 240 degrees /s. After exercise, they were randomly assigned to receive either an ice massage or detuned ultrasound for 15 minutes, 1 on each session. The PPT and RMS during maximal voluntary contraction were measured over the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles at baseline, postexercise, and 5 minutes postintervention. The hypothesis of interest was the intervention x time interaction.

RESULTS:

The analysis of covariance found a significant intervention x time interaction for PPT over the VM (F = 17.3, P < .001) and VL (F = 5.4, P = .03) muscles but not over the RF (F = 1.2, P = .3), indicating an increase in PPT after the ice massage. An intervention x time interaction was found for RMS of the VL (F = 5.8, P = .01) but not of the VM (F = 0.5, P = .5) or RF (F = 0.01, P = .9) muscles, indicating an increase in RMS after the ice massage. A significant positive correlation between PPT and RMS for the VL muscle was identified (r = 0.6, P = .03).

CONCLUSION:

Ice massage after isokinetic exercise produced an immediate increase of PPT over the VL and VM and EMG activity over the VL muscle in recreational athletes, suggesting that ice massage may result in a hypoalgesic effect and improvements in EMG activity.

Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20350675

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

13. Motor and sensory nerve conduction are affected differently by ice pack, ice massage, and cold water immersion.

Herrera E, Sandoval MC, Camargo DM, Salvini TF.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185615

 

Source

Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is well known that reducing tissue temperature changes sensory and motor nerve conduction. However, few studies have compared the effect of different cold modalities on nerve conduction parameters.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ice pack, ice massage, and cold water immersion on the conduction parameters of the sural (sensorial) and tibial motor nerves.

DESIGN:

An experimental study was conducted in which the participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups (n=12 per group). Independent variables were cold modality and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were skin temperature and nerve conduction parameters.

METHODS:

Thirty-six people who were healthy, with a mean (SD) age of 20.5 (1.9) years, participated in the study. Each group received 1 of the 3 cold modalities, applied to the right calf region for 15 minutes. Skin temperature and nerve conduction parameters were measured before and immediately after cooling.

RESULTS:

All 3 modalities reduced skin temperature (mean=18.2 degrees C). There also was a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency and duration of the compound action potential. Ice massage, ice pack, and cold water immersion reduced sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) by 20.4, 16.7, and 22.6 m/s and motor NCV by 2.5, 2.1, and 8.3 m/s, respectively. Cold water immersion was the most effective modality in changing nerve conduction parameters.

LIMITATIONS:

The cooling area of the ice massage and ice pack was smaller than that of the cold water immersion. The examiner was not blinded to the treatment group. The population included only participants who were healthy and young.

CONCLUSIONS:

All 3 modalities were effective in reducing skin temperature and changing sensory conduction at a physiological level that is sufficient to induce a hypoalgesic effect. The results suggest that cold water immersion, as applied in this study, is the most indicated modality for inducing therapeutic effects associated with the reduction of motor nerve conduction.

PMID: 20185615

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

14.    Physiological and clinical changes after therapeutic massage of the neck and shoulders.

Man Ther. 2011 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Sefton JM, Yarar C, Carpenter DM, Berry JW.

Source

Neuromechanics Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5323, USA.

Abstract

Little is known regarding the physiological and clinical effects of therapeutic massage (TM) even though it is often prescribed for musculoskeletal complaints such as chronic neck pain. This study investigated the influence of a standardized clinical neck/shoulder TM intervention on physiological measures assessing α-motoneurone pool excitability, muscle activity; and the clinical measure of range of motion (ROM) compared to a light touch and control intervention. Flexor carpi radialis (FCR) α-motoneurone pool excitability (Hoffmann reflex), electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of the upper trapezius during maximal muscle activity, and cervical ROM were used to assess possible physiological changes and clinical effects of TM. Sixteen healthy adults participated in three, 20 min interventions: control (C), light touch (LT) and therapeutic massage (TM). Analysis of Covariance indicated a decrease in FCR α-motoneurone pool excitability after TM, compared to both the LT (p = 0.0003) or C (p = 0.0007) interventions. EMG signal amplitude decreased after TM by 13% (p < 0.0001), when compared to the control, and 12% (p < 0.0001) as compared to LT intervention. The TM intervention produced increases in cervical ROM in all directions assessed: flexion (p < 0.0001), lateral flexion (p < 0.0001), extension (p < 0.0001), and rotation (p < 0.0001). TM of the neck/shoulders reduced the α-motoneurone pool excitability of the flexor carpi radialis after TM, but not after the LT or C interventions. Moreover, decreases in the normalized EMG amplitude during MVIC of the upper trapezius muscle; and increases in cervical ROM in all directions assessed occurred after TM, but not after the LT or C interventions.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 21570335

PubMed - as supplied by publisher

 

15.    Moderate pressure is essential for massage therapy effects.

Int J Neurosci. 2010 May;120(5):381-5.

Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M.

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Moderate pressure appears to be necessary for massage therapy effects. Studies comparing moderate and light pressure massage are reviewed and they suggest that growth and development are enhanced in infants and stress is reduced in adults, but only by moderate pressure massage. The stimulation of pressure receptors leads to increased vagal activity which, in turn, seems to mediate the diverse benefits noted for massage therapy.

PMID: 20402578

PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

16. Massage impairs postexercise muscle blood flow and "lactic acid" removal.

Wiltshire EV, Poitras V, Pak M, Hong T, Rayner J, Tschakovsky ME.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19997015

 

Source

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study tested the hypothesis that one of the ways sports massage aids muscle recovery from exercise is by increasing muscle blood flow to improve "lactic acid" removal.

METHODS:

Twelve subjects performed 2 min of strenuous isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise at 40% maximum voluntary contraction to elevate forearm muscle lactic acid. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler and Echo ultrasound of the brachial artery) and deep venous forearm blood lactate and H+ concentration ([La-], [H+]) were measured every minute for 10 min post-IHG under three conditions: passive (passive rest), active (rhythmic exercise at 10% maximum voluntary contraction), and massage (effleurage and pétrissage). Arterialized [La-] and [H+] from a superficial heated hand vein was measured at baseline.

RESULTS:

Data are presented as mean +/- SE. Venoarterial [La-] difference ([La-]v-a) at 30 s of post-IHG was the same across conditions (passive = 6.1 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1), active = 5.7 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1), massage = 5.5 +/- 0.6 mmol x L(-1), NS), whereas FBF was greater in passive (766 +/- 101 mL x min(-1)) versus active (614 +/- 62 mL x min(-1), P = 0.003) versus massage (540 +/- 60 mL x min(-1), P < 0.0001). Total FBF area under the curve (AUC) for 10 min after handgrip was significantly higher in passive versus massage (4203 +/- 531 vs 3178 +/- 304 mL, P = 0.024) but not versus active (3584 +/- 284 mL, P = 0.217). La(-)- efflux (FBF x [La-]v-a) AUC mirrored FBF AUC (passive = 20.5 +/- 2.8 mmol vs massage = 14.7 +/- 1.6 mmol, P = 0.03, vs active = 15.4 +/- 1.9 mmol, P = 0.064). H+ efflux (FBF x [H+]v-a) was greater in passive versus massage at 30 s (2.2 +/- 0.4e(-5) vs 1.3 +/- 0.2e(-5) mmol, P < 0.001) and 1.5 min (1.0 +/- 0.2e(-5) vs 0.6 +/- 0.09e(-5) mmol, P = 0.003) after IHG.

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage impairs La(-) and H+ removal from muscle after strenuous exercise by mechanically impeding blood flow.

Comment in

PMID: 19997015

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

17. Novel applications of ultrasound technology to visualize and characterize myofascial trigger points and surrounding soft tissue.

Sikdar S, Shah JP, Gebreab T, Yen RH, Gilliams E, Danoff J, Gerber LH.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19887205

 

Source

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr, MS 1G5, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA. ssikdar@gmu.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To apply ultrasound (US) imaging techniques to better describe the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and the immediately adjacent soft tissue.

DESIGN:

Four sites in each patient were labeled based on physical examination as active myofascial trigger points (A-MTrPs; spontaneously painful), latent myofascial trigger points (L-MTrPs; nonpainful), or normal myofascial tissue. US examination was performed on each subject by a team blinded to the physical findings. A 12 approximately 5MHz US transducer was used. Vibration sonoelastography (VSE) was performed by color Doppler variance imaging while simultaneously inducing vibrations (approximately 92Hz) with a handheld massage vibrator. Each site was assigned a tissue imaging score as follows: 0, uniform echogenicity and stiffness; 1, focal hypoechoic region with stiff nodule; 2, multiple hypoechoic regions with stiff nodules. Blood flow in the neighborhood of MTrPs was assessed using Doppler imaging. Each site was assigned a blood flow waveform score as follows: 0, normal arterial flow in muscle; 1, elevated diastolic flow; 2, high-resistance flow waveform with retrograde diastolic flow.

SETTING:

Biomedical research center.

PARTICIPANTS:

Subjects (N=9) meeting Travell and Simons' criteria for MTrPs in a taut band in the upper trapezius.

INTERVENTIONS:

Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

MTrPs were evaluated by (1) physical examination, (2) pressure algometry, and (3) three types of US imaging including gray-scale (2-dimensional [2D] US), VSE, and Doppler.

RESULTS:

MTrPs appeared as focal, hypoechoic regions on 2D US, indicating local changes in tissue echogenicity, and as focal regions of reduced vibration amplitude on VSE, indicating a localized, stiff nodule. MTrPs were elliptical, with a size of .16+/-.11 cm(2). There were no significant differences in size between A-MTrPs and L-MTrPs. Sites containing MTrPs were more likely to have a higher tissue imaging score compared with normal myofascial tissue (P<.002). Small arteries (or enlarged arterioles) near A-MTrPs showed retrograde flow in diastole, indicating a highly resistive vascular bed. A-MTrP sites were more likely to have a higher blood flow score compared with L-MTrPs (P<.021).

CONCLUSIONS:

Preliminary findings show that, under the conditions of this investigation, US imaging techniques can be used to distinguish myofascial tissue containing MTrPs from normal myofascial tissue (lacking trigger points). US enables visualization and some characterization of MTrPs and adjacent soft tissue.

PMID: 19887205

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2774893

 

18. Compression on trigger points in the leg muscle increases parasympathetic nervous activity based on heart rate variability.

Takamoto K, Sakai S, Hori E, Urakawa S, Umeno K, Ono T, Nishijo H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19340540

 

Source

System Emotional Science, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani 2630, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan.

Abstract

Massotherapy, the therapeutic use of massage, is used to treat various chronic pain syndromes. One type of massotherapy, pressure stimulus applied over trigger points (TPs), is reported to have excellent therapeutic effects. Its effect is possibly mediated through changes in the autonomic nervous system although little research has been conducted to assess autonomic activity during TP compression. We have investigated how compression applied over TPs affects the autonomic nervous system. Six healthy young adult females whose daily working routine was carried out predominantly in a standing position were enrolled in the study cohort. After a day's work, the subjects were asked to rest supine, and electrocardiograms (ECGs), instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were measured before and after pressure application over the TPs in those lower limb muscles where the subjects felt muscle fatigue or discomfort. The subjects were also asked to coordinate breathing with the beeping sounds. The therapeutic effects of TP compression were assessed by a subjective fatigue scale. Parasympathetic nervous activity was also assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability. The transfer function from ILV to HR was evaluated using linear analysis. The results indicated that TP compression (1) decreased HR, SBP and DBP, (2) increased parasympathetic activity, (3) increased the gain from ILV to HR, and (4) improved the fatigue scores. These findings suggest that an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity after the TP compression induced a reduction of fatigue. The therapeutic mechanisms of TP compression to enhance parasympathetic nervous system are discussed.

PMID: 19340540

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

19. Moderate pressure massage elicits a parasympathetic nervous system response.

Diego MA, Field T.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19283590

 

Source

Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. mdiego@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Twenty healthy adults were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure or a light pressure massage therapy group, and EKGs were recorded during a 3-min baseline, during the 15-min massage period and during a 3-min postmassage period. EKG data were then used to derive the high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF) components of heart rate variability and the low to high frequency ratio (LF/HF) as noninvasive markers of autonomic nervous system activity. The participants who received the moderate pressure massage exhibited a parasympathetic nervous system response characterized by an increase in HF, suggesting increased vagal efferent activity and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio, suggesting a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic activity that peaked during the first half of the massage period. On the other hand, those who received the light pressure massage exhibited a sympathetic nervous system response characterized by decreased HF and increased LF/HF.

PMID: 19283590

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

20. Massage after exercise--responses of immunologic and endocrine markers: a randomized single-blind placebo-controlled study.

Arroyo-Morales M, Olea N, Ruíz C, del Castilo Jde D, Martínez M, Lorenzo C, Díaz-Rodríguez L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197204

 

Source

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, High Performance Sports Center at Altitude, Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain. marroyo@ugr.es

Abstract

The effectiveness of massage for postexercise recovery remains unclear, despite numerous studies on this issue. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of massage on endocrine and immune functions of healthy active volunteers after intense exercise. After repeated Wingate tests, the effects of whole-body massage and placebo on salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and total protein levels were compared using a between-group design. Sixty healthy active subjects (23 women, 37 men) underwent 2 exercise protocol sessions at least 2 weeks apart and at the same time of day. The first session familiarized participants with the protocol. In the second session, after a baseline measurement, subjects performed a standardized warm-up followed by three 30-second Wingate tests. After active recovery, subjects were randomly allocated to massage (40-minute myofascial induction) or placebo (40-minute sham electrotherapy) group. Saliva samples were taken before and after the exercise protocols and after recovery. In both groups, the exercise protocol induced a significant increase in cortisol (p < 0.001), decrease in salivary IgA (sIgA) (p < 0.001), and increase in total proteins (p = 0.01) in saliva. Generalized estimating equations showed a significant effect of massage on sIgA rate (p = 0.05), a tendency toward significant effect on salivary total protein levels (p = 0.10), and no effect on salivary flow rate (p = 0.55) or salivary cortisol (p = 0.39). The sIgA secretion rate was higher after the recovery intervention than at baseline among women in the massage group (p = 0.03) but similar to baseline levels among women in the placebo group (p = 0.29). Massage may favor recovery from the transient immunosuppression state induced by exercise in healthy active women, of particular value between high-intensity training sessions or competitions on the same day.

PMID: 19197204

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

21. Psychophysiological effects of massage-myofascial release after exercise: a randomized sham-control study.

Arroyo-Morales M, Olea N, Martínez MM, Hidalgo-Lozano A, Ruiz-Rodríguez C, Díaz-Rodríguez L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19123877

 

Source

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. marroyo@ugr.es

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of massage on neuromuscular recruitment, mood state, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) after high-intensity exercise.

DESIGN:

This was a prospective randomized clinical trial using between-groups design.

SETTING:

The study was conducted at a university-based sports medicine clinic.

PARTICIPANTS:

Sixty-two (62) healthy active students age 18-26 participated.

INTERVENTIONS:

Participants, randomized into two groups, performed three 30-second Wingate tests and immediately received whole-body massage-myofascial induction or placebo (sham ultrasound/magnetotherapy) treatment. The duration (40 minutes), position, and therapist were the same for both treatments.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Dependent variables were surface electromyography (sEMG) of quadriceps, profile of mood states (POMS) and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) of trapezius and masseter muscles. These data were assessed at baseline and after exercise and recovery periods.

RESULTS:

Generalized estimating equations models were performed on dependent variables to assess differences between groups. Significant differences were found in effects of treatment on sEMG of Vastus Medialis (VM) (p = 0.02) and vigor subscale (p = 0.04). After the recovery period, there was a significant decrease in electromyographic (EMG) activity of VM (p = 0.02) in the myofascial-release group versus a nonsignificant increase in the placebo group (p = 0.32), and a decrease in vigor (p < 0.01) in the massage group versus no change in the placebo group (p = 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage reduces EMG amplitude and vigor when applied as a passive recovery technique after a high-intensity exercise protocol. Massage may induce a transient loss of muscle strength or a change in the muscle fiber tension-length relationship, influenced by alterations of muscle function and a psychological state of relaxation.

PMID: 19123877

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

22. Changes in Clinical Parameters in Patients with Tension-type Headache Following Massage Therapy: A Pilot Study.

Moraska A, Chandler C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19119396

 

Source

School of Nursing, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO.

Abstract

Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to treatment for tension-type headache are increasingly popular among patients, but evidence supporting its efficacy is limited. The objective of this study was to assess short term changes on primary and secondary headache pain measures in patients with tension-type headache (TTH) receiving a structured massage therapy program with a focus on myofascial trigger point therapy. Participants were enrolled in an open label trial using a baseline control with four 3-week phases: baseline, massage (two 3-week phases) and follow-up. Twice weekly, 45-minute massage sessions commenced following the baseline phase. A daily headache diary was maintained throughout the study in which participants recorded headache incidence, intensity, and duration. The Headache Disability Index was administered upon study entry and at 3-week intervals thereafter. 18 subjects were enrolled with 16 completing all headache diary, evaluation, and massage assignments. Study participants reported a median of 7.5 years with TTH. Headache frequency decreased from 4.7+/-0.7 episodes per week during baseline to 3.7+/-0.9 during treatment period 2 (P<0.001); reduction was also noted during the follow-up phase (3.2+/-1.0). Secondary measures of headache also decreased across the study phases with headache intensity decreasing by 30% (P<0.01) and headache duration from 4.0+/-1.3 to 2.8+/-0.5 hours (P<0.05). A corresponding improvement in Headache Disability Index was found with massage (P<0.001). This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for reduction in headache pain and disability with massage therapy that targets myofascial trigger points, suggesting the need for more rigorously controlled studies.

PMID: 19119396

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2565109

Free PMC Article

 

23. Physiological adjustments to stress measures following massage therapy: a review of the literature.

Moraska A, Pollini RA, Boulanger K, Brooks MZ, Teitlebaum L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955340

 

Source

Massage Therapy Foundation, Evanston, Illinois, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, School of Nursing, Denver, Colorado, University of California at San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California, University of Iowa, Community and Behavioral Health, Iowa City, Iowa and Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Abstract

Use of massage therapy by the general public has increased substantially in recent years. In light of the popularity of massage therapy for stress reduction, a comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed literature is important to summarize the effectiveness of this modality on stress-reactive physiological measures. On-line databases were searched for articles relevant to both massage therapy and stress. Articles were included in this review if (i) the massage therapy account consisted of manipulation of soft tissues and was conducted by a trained therapist, and (ii) a dependent measure to evaluate physiological stress was reported. Hormonal and physical parameters are reviewed. A total of 25 studies met all inclusion criteria. A majority of studies employed a 20-30 min massage administered twice-weekly over 5 weeks with evaluations conducted pre-post an individual session (single treatment) or following a series of sessions (multiple treatments). Single treatment reductions in salivary cortisol and heart rate were consistently noted. A sustained reduction for these measures was not supported in the literature, although the single-treatment effect was repeatable within a study. To date, the research data is insufficient to make definitive statements regarding the multiple treatment effect of massage therapy on urinary cortisol or catecholamines, but some evidence for a positive effect on diastolic blood pressure has been documented. While significant improvement has been demonstrated following massage therapy, the general research body on this topic lacks the necessary scientific rigor to provide a definitive understanding of the effect massage therapy has on many physiological variables associated with stress.

PMID: 18955340

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2892349

Free PMC Article

 

24. Effects of myofascial induction techniques on physiologic and psychologic parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

Fernández-Pérez AM, Peralta-Ramírez MI, Pilat A, Villaverde C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18724827

 

Source

Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Spain. fernandez@ugr.es

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of physiologic and psychologic variables.

DESIGN:

Forty-one (41) healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group.

INTERVENTIONS:

The experimental group underwent 3 manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle technique, compression of fourth intracranial ventricle, and deep cervical fascia technique. The control group remained in a resting position for the same time period under the same environmental conditions.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Temperature, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured before, during, and after the intervention. State and trait anxiety levels and depression level were evaluated before and after the intervention.

RESULTS:

Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant time x groups interaction [F = 4.7(1,40); p = 0.036] for state anxiety. There were no significant time x group interaction effects for depression [F = 0.33(1,40); p = 0.57] or trait anxiety [F = 3.76(1,40), p = 0.060]. Among physiologic parameters, a significant time x group interaction was found for systolic BP [F = 2.86(6,240); p = 0.033] and heart rate [F = 2.89(6,240); p = 0.036].

CONCLUSIONS:

Psychologic modulation is observed after application of manual therapy techniques, with a decrease in state anxiety in the experimental group. Heart rate and systolic BP were modulated during the course of myofascial induction techniques. All of these effects were observed up to 20 minutes after the therapy.

PMID: 18724827

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

25. An exploratory study of neurohormonal responses of healthy men to massage.

Bello D, White-Traut R, Schwertz D, Pournajafi-Nazarloo H, Carter CS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18576922

 

Source

Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015, USA. debra_bello@baxter.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This research examined the relationship between plasma oxytocin (OT), arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and anxiety before, during, and after a massage in healthy adult men.

DESIGN:

A randomized, controlled, crossover, repeated-measures, prospective experimental design with subjects acting as their own controls was used.

SETTING:

The research was conducted at a Midwestern University.

SUBJECTS:

Fourteen (14) healthy men between the ages of 19 and 45 years of age were randomly assigned to the order of two conditions: a 20-minute massage (experimental condition) or a 20-minute reading period (control condition).

METHODS:

Blood samples were collected at time intervals during each data collection session. Plasma OT, AVP, and cortisol levels were evaluated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and autonomic measures were recorded pre- and postcondition.

RESULTS:

Both experimental (massage) and control (reading) conditions elicited a significant increase in plasma OT levels (p < 0.05) and a decrease in SAI score (p < 0.05) from pre- to postintervention. A significant positive correlation was detected between plasma AVP and plasma cortisol (r = 0.63, n = 24, p = 0.001) in the massage group, whereas a significant positive correlation between plasma AVP and the SAI (r = 0.47, n = 25, p = 0.016) was observed in the reading group. No significant differences were observed for the autonomic measures between conditions.

CONCLUSIONS:

The finding that plasma OT levels increased in both the massage and reading groups, suggests that tactile stimulus is not necessary for OT release. The results suggest that another unknown factor associated with reduction of anxiety may be involved.

PMID: 18576922

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

26. The combined acute effects of massage, rest periods, and body part elevation on resistance exercise performance.

Caruso JF, Coday MA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18550976

 

Source

Exercise Science Program, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. john-caruso@utulsa.edu

Abstract

Although massage administered between workouts has been suggested to improve recovery and subsequent performance, its application between bouts of repetitive supramaximal anaerobic efforts within a given workout has received little attention. The purpose of the study compared different forms of very short rest periods administered between resistance exercise sets of individual workouts on subsequent performance. With a within-subjects design methodology, subjects (n = 30) performed three workouts that were identical in terms of the exercises (45 degrees leg press, prone leg curl, seated shoulder press, standing barbell curl), number of sets, and the resistance employed. For each workout, subjects received one of the following treatments between sets: 1 minute of rest as they stood upright, 30 seconds of rest as they stood upright, or 30 seconds of concurrent massage and body part elevation (MBPE), which entailed petrassage of the exercised limbs in a raised and supported position in an attempt to abate fatigue and enhance recovery from the previous set. Subjects were instructed to perform as many repetitions as possible for each set. For each exercise, two dependent variables were calculated: a total work/elapsed time ratio and the cumulative number of repetitions performed. For each exercise, one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test revealed the following total work/elapsed time results: 1 minute rest <30 seconds' rest, 30 seconds' MBPE. For each exercise, cumulative repetition results were as follows: 1 minute rest >30 seconds' rest, 30 seconds' MBPE. Results imply that rest period duration exerts more influence on resistance exercise performance than MBPE. Those who seek improved resistance exercise performance should pay particular attention to rest period durations.

PMID: 18550976

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

27. Effects of myofascial release after high-intensity exercise: a randomized clinical trial.

Arroyo-Morales M, Olea N, Martinez M, Moreno-Lorenzo C, Díaz-Rodríguez L, Hidalgo-Lozano A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394499

 

Source

Physiotherapy Department, High Altitude Training Centre of Sierra Nevada, Higher Sports Council, Health Sciences School, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. marroyo@ugr.es

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The usefulness of massage as a recovery method after high-intensity exercise has yet to be established. We aimed to investigate the effects of whole-body massage on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) after repeated high-intensity cycling exercise under controlled and standardized pretest conditions.

METHODS:

The study included 62 healthy active individuals. After baseline measurements, the subjects performed standardized warm-up exercises followed by three 30-second Wingate tests. After completing the exercise protocol, the subjects were randomly assigned to a massage (myofascial release) or placebo (sham treatment with disconnected ultrasound and magnetotherapy equipment) group for a 40-minute recovery period. Holter recording and BP measurements were taken after exercise protocol and after the intervention.

RESULTS:

After the exercise protocol, both groups showed a significant decrease in normal-to-normal interval, HRV index, diastolic BP (P > .001), and low-frequency domain values (P = .006). After the recovery period, HRV index (P = .42) and high-frequency (HF) (P = .94) values were similar to baseline levels in the massage group, whereas the HRV index tended (P = .05) to be lower and the HF was significantly (P < .01) lower vs baseline values in the placebo group, which also showed a tendency (P = .06) for HF to be lower than after the exercise. Likewise, diastolic BP returned to baseline levels in the massage group (P = .45) but remained lower in the placebo group (P = .02).

CONCLUSION:

Myofascial release massage favors the recovery of HRV and diastolic BP after high-intensity exercise (3 Wingate tests) to preexercise levels.

PMID: 18394499

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

28. Side-effects of massage therapy: a cross-sectional study of 100 clients.

Cambron JA, Dexheimer J, Coe P, Swenson R.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17983334

 

Source

Department of Research, National University of Health Sciences, Lombard, IL 60148, USA. jcambron@nuhs.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to determine the amount and type of negative side-effects and positive (unexpected) effects experienced after a massage session.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional.

SETTING:

Massage clinic at a health sciences university.

SUBJECTS:

Of the 100 new and returning massage therapy clients who agreed to participate, 91 completed all survey questions. Outcome measures: Telephone survey and medical chart review 2-7 days postmassage.

RESULTS:

Overall, 10% of the massage clients experienced some minor discomfort after the massage session; however, 23% experienced unexpected, nonmusculoskeletal positive side-effects. The majority of negative symptoms started less than 12 hours after the massage and lasted for 36 hours or less. The majority of positive benefits began immediately after massage and lasted more than 48 hours. No major side-effects occurred during this study.

CONCLUSIONS:

This the first known study to define the rate of side-effects after massage therapy treatment. These data are important for risk-benefit analyses of massage care. Larger studies are needed to verify these data and to assess effects of different massage types and durations.

PMID: 17983334

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

29. Evaluation of anxiety, salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion following reflexology treatment: a pilot study in healthy individuals.

McVicar AJ, Greenwood CR, Fewell F, D'Arcy V, Chandrasekharan S, Alldridge LC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17631256

 

Source

Institute of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Bishop Hall Lane, Chelmsford, Essex, UK.

Abstract

This pilot study sought to identify an appropriate methodology to investigate the impact of reflexology in healthcare settings. The study involved healthy volunteers to prevent unnecessary intervention to individuals who may already be experiencing health related trauma. Thirty participants underwent either reflexology or no treatment (control), in a cross-over experimental design. Self-reported anxiety (Spielberger STAI), cardiovascular parameters (BP and pulse rate) and salivary cortisol and melatonin concentrations were assessed before and after reflexology. Control data were obtained at the same time points in identical settings. Reflexology had a powerful anxiety-reduction effect ('state'; P<0.001) but no significant effect on underlying anxiety ('trait'). Cardiovascular parameters decreased (P<0.001). Baseline salivary cortisol and melatonin were not significantly correlated with STAI scores and did not change significantly following reflexology. Reflexology reduced 'state' anxiety and cardiovascular activity within healthy individuals, consistent with stress-reduction. Considering the connection between stress/anxiety and well being, the effects of reflexology may have beneficial outcomes for patients. These findings will be transferred to a study involving breast cancer patients where effects may be more pronounced particularly since cancer patients display disregulation of cortisol and melatonin secretion.

PMID: 17631256

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

30. The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels.

Bender T, Nagy G, Barna I, Tefner I, Kádas E, Géher P.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17483960

 

Source

Polyclinic of Hospitaller Brothers of St. John of God, Budapest, Hungary. bender@mail.datanet.hu

Abstract

Beta-endorphin (betaE) is an important reliever of pain. Various stressors and certain modalities of physiotherapy are potent inducers of the release of endogenous betaE to the blood stream. Most forms of exercise also increase blood betaE level, especially when exercise intensity involves reaching the anaerobic threshold and is associated with the elevation of serum lactate level. Age, gender, and mental activity during exercise also may influence betaE levels. Publications on the potential stimulating effect of manual therapy and massage on betaE release are controversial. Sauna, mud bath, and thermal water increase betaE levels through conveying heat to the tissues. The majority of the techniques for electrical stimulation have a similar effect, which is exerted both centrally and--to a lesser extent--peripherally. However, the parameters of electrotherapy have not yet been standardised. The efficacy of analgesia and the improvement of general well-being do not necessarily correlate with betaE level. Although in addition to blood, increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid betaE levels are also associated with pain, the majority of studies have concerned blood betaE levels. In general, various modalities of physical therapy might influence endorphin levels in the serum or in the cerebrospinal fluid--this is usually manifested by elevation with potential mitigation of pain. However, a causal relationship between the elevation of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or brain betaE levels and the onset of the analgesic action cannot be demonstrated with certainty.

PMID: 17483960

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

31. Oxytocin: behavioral associations and potential as a salivary biomarker.

Carter CS, Pournajafi-Nazarloo H, Kramer KM, Ziegler TE, White-Traut R, Bello D, Schwertz D.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435137

 

Source

Brain-Body Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. scarter@psych.uic.edu

Abstract

Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide that is produced primarily in the hypothalamus and is best known for its role in mammalian birth and lactation. Recent evidence also implicates OT in social behaviors, including parental behavior, the formation of social bonds, and the management of stressful experiences. OT is reactive to stressors, and plays a role in the regulation of both the central and autonomic nervous system, including effects on immune and cardiovascular function. Knowledge of patterns of OT release would be of value in many fields of science and medicine. However, measurements of OT concentration in blood are infrequently performed, and previous attempts to measure OT in saliva have been unsuccessful. Using a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and concentrated samples we were able to detect reproducible changes in salivary OT as a function of lactation and massage. These results indicate that measurements of biologically relevant changes in salivary OT are possible. These results confirm the biological relevance of changes in salivary OT with stressors and support saliva as a noninvasive source to monitor central neuroendocrine function.

PMID: 17435137

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

32. Changes in cerebral blood flow under the prone condition with and without massage.

Ouchi Y, Kanno T, Okada H, Yoshikawa E, Shinke T, Nagasawa S, Minoda K, Doi H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16973270

 

Source

Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamamatsu 434-0041, Japan. ouchi@pmc.hmedc.or.jp

Abstract

To investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) under the prone condition with and without light massage on the back, we measured rCBF quantitatively in healthy human subjects using positron emission tomography with H(2)15O. Biochemical tests showed that the light massage (palm-pressure) reduced levels of stress-related serum cortisol and salivary stress protein chromogranin-A measured after the PET examination. Absolute rCBF significantly increased in the parietal cortex (precuneus) under the prone condition compared with the supine condition, and this rCBF increase was in parallel with comfortable sensation and slowing heart rate during the massage. Correlation analysis in statistical parametric mapping showed that the amygdalar and basal forebrain rCBF correlated with parasympathetic function (heart rate reduction), indicating involvement of the forebrain-amygdala system in mediating activities in the autonomic nervous system in the presence of comfortable sensation. To conclude, prone posture itself can stimulate the precuneus region to raise awareness, and the light massage on the back may help accommodate the brain to comfortable stimulation.

PMID: 16973270

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

33. Corticotropin releasing factor in urine--a possible biochemical marker of fibromyalgia. Responses to massage and guided relaxation.

Lund I, Lundeberg T, Carleson J, Sönnerfors H, Uhrlin B, Svensson E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16716515

 

Source

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, von Eulers väg 4-8, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Irene.Lund@ki.se

Abstract

The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between a possible biochemical marker of stress, 24-h urinary concentrations of Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Like Immunoreactivity (CRF-LI), and ratings of stress-related symptoms like depression and anxiety, as well as to evaluate pain and emotional reactions in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Another purpose was to study the effects of massage and guided relaxation, with respect to change in the same variables. Urine sampling and ratings were performed before treatments, after and 1 month after completed treatments. Concentrations of CRF-LI was analysed with radioimmnoassay technique. For the assessment of depression, anxiety and pain the CPRS-A questionnaire was used and for rated pain and emotional reactions the NHP questionnaire was used. The 24-h urinary concentration of the CRF-LI was found to be related to depression, mood and inability to take initiative. After treatment the urinary CRF-LI concentrations and the rated levels of pain and emotional reactions were found to have decreased. In conclusion, the 24-h urinary CRF-LI concentration may be used as a biochemical marker of stress-related symptoms such as depression in patients with FM and possibly also other conditions characterized by chronic pain. Therapies such as massage and guided relaxation may be tried for the amelioration of pain and stress but further studies are required.

PMID: 16716515

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

34. Changes in blood pressure after various forms of therapeutic massage: a preliminary study.

Cambron JA, Dexheimer J, Coe P.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494570

 

Source

Department of Research, National University of Health Sciences, Lombard, IL 60148, USA. jcambron@nuhs.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this study was to determine the change in blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and prehypertensive adults resulting from a therapeutic massage, and the factors associated with such changes, including demographic and massage characteristics.

DESIGN:

SETTINGS/LOCATION:

National University of Health Sciences Massage Therapy Clinic, Lombard, IL.

SUBJECTS:

The subjects were 150 current adult massage therapy clients with BP lower than 150/95.

INTERVENTIONS:

BP was measured before and after a therapeutic massage.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Change in BP and potential associated factors such as type of massage, duration of massage, specific body area massaged, amount of massage pressure, and demographic characteristics were studied.

RESULTS:

Overall, systolic BP decreased by 1.8 mm Hg and diastolic BP increased by 0.1 mm Hg. Demographic factors associated with BP decrease included younger age (p = 0.01) and taller stature (p = 0.09). Type of massage was associated with change in BP: Swedish massage had the greatest effect at BP reduction. Trigger point therapy and sports massage both increased the systolic BP, and if both forms of massage were included in a session, both the systolic and diastolic BP readings significantly increased. No other massage factors were associated with a significant change in BP.

CONCLUSIONS:

Type of massage was the main factor affecting change in BP. Increases in BP were noted for potentially painful massage techniques, including trigger point therapy.

PMID: 16494570

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

35. Effect of lower limb massage on electromyography and force production of the knee extensors.

Hunter AM, Watt JM, Watt V, Galloway SD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16431996

 

Source

Department of Sports Studies, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK. a.m.hunter1@stir.ac.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the effect of massage on force production and neuromuscular recruitment.

METHODS:

Ten healthy male subjects performed isokinetic concentric contractions on the knee extensors at speeds of 60, 120, 180, and 240 degrees /s. These contractions were performed before and after a 30 minute intervention of either rest in the supine position or lower limb massage. Electromyography (EMG) and force data were captured during the contractions.

RESULTS:

The change in isokinetic mean force due to the intervention showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) at 60 degrees /s and a trend for a decrease (p = 0.08) at 120 degrees /s as a result of massage compared with passive rest. However, there were no corresponding differences in any of the EMG data. A reduction in force production was shown at 60 degrees /s with no corresponding alteration in neuromuscular activity.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggests that motor unit recruitment and muscle fibre conduction velocity are not responsible for the observed reductions in force. Although experimental confirmation is necessary, a possible explanation is that massage induced force loss by influencing "muscle architecture". However, it is possible that the differences were only found at 60 degrees /s because it was the first contraction after massage. Therefore muscle tension and architecture after massage and the duration of any massage effect need to be examined.

PMID: 16431996

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2492033

Free PMC Article

 

36. The immediate effects of manual massage on power-grip performance after maximal exercise in healthy adults.

Brooks CP, Woodruff LD, Wright LL, Donatelli R.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16398602

 

Source

ACT College, Alexandria, VA 22310, USA. CarolBrooks@healthtraining.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Research into the effects of manual massage on physical performance has proved inconclusive, with studies primarily examining the major muscle groups of the lower extremities. Grip performance is essential for object manipulation, as well as for many grip-dependent activities and sports; but there have been no studies to determine the effects of manual massage on immediate grip performance in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of using manual massage to improve power-grip performance immediately after maximal exercise in healthy adults.

STUDY DESIGN:

This was a pretest/post-test study.

SETTING:

The study took place in a suburban allied health school.

SUBJECTS:

Fifty-two (52) volunteer massage-school clients, staff, faculty, and students participated. Interventions: Subjects randomly received either a 5-minute forearm/hand massage of effleurage and friction (to either the dominant hand or nondominant hand side), 5 minutes of passive shoulder and elbow range of motion, or 5 minutes of nonintervention rest.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Power-grip measurements (baseline, postexercise, and postintervention) were performed on both hands using a commercial hand dynamometer. These measurements preceded and followed 3 minutes of maximal exercise using a commercial isometric hand exerciser that produced fatigue to 60% of baseline strength.

RESULTS:

After 3 minutes of isometric exercise, power grip was consistently fatigued to at least 60% of baseline, with recovery occurring over the next 5 minutes. Statistical analyses involving single-factor repeated-measures analyses of variance (p = 0.05) with Bonferroni a priori tests (p = 0.0083) demonstrated that massage had a greater effect than no massage or than placebo on grip performance after fatigue, especially in the nondominant-hand group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Manual massage to the forearm and hand after maximal exercise was associated with greater effects than nonmassage on postexercise grip performance. The present data do support the use of a 5-minute manual massage to assist immediate grip performance after fatigue in healthy subjects.

PMID: 16398602

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

37. Salivary cortisol as an indicator of adrenocortical function in healthy infants, using massage therapy.

Fogaça Mde C, Carvalho WB, Peres Cde A, Lora MI, Hayashi LF, Verreschi IT.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358095

 

Source

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:

The evaluation of adrenocortical function with the use of therapeutic massage has been little studied in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels before and after Shantala massage therapy on healthy infants.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

Prospective case series, in a public nursery, in São Paulo.

METHODS:

Saliva was obtained from 11 infants at the times of 8:00-9:00 a.m. and 4:00-5:00 p.m. in a nursery and 9:00-10:00 p.m. at home. They received a 15-minute therapeutic massage on two consecutive days, and saliva was collected before and after the massage. The procedure was repeated after a one-week interval. Cortisol values (intra-assay < 5%; inter-assay < 10%) at different times of the day were compared by ANOVA.

RESULTS:

The mean cortisol values (nmol/l +/- SD) on the first day were: morning (M) = 14.1 +/- 5.7, afternoon (A) = 8.3 +/- 2.7, night (N) = 3.3 +/- 1.1; after two consecutive days of therapeutic massage: M = 22.3 +/- 13.5, A = 13.4 +/- 6.0, N = 5.8 +/- 3.5; after a one-week interval: M = 15.8 +/- 7.7, A = 14.3 +/- 7.7, N = 3.4 +/- 2.0.

CONCLUSION:

There was a modification in the salivary cortisol values following massage, thus reflecting possible adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

PMID: 16358095

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

38.The effect of effleurage massage in recovery from fatigue in the adductor muscles of the thumb.

Young R, Gutnik B, Moran RW, Thomson RW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16326239

 

Source

School of Health and Community Studies, Unitec, New Zealand.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local effleurage massage on the recovery from fatigue in the small hand muscles.

METHODS:

This study was a within-subject repeated measure design. Twelve healthy, right-handed volunteer male subjects with a mean age of 25 +/- 2.8 years were recruited into the study from a university population. Subjects were randomly allocated to a rest or massage protocol. Subjects undertook the alternate protocol at a subsequent session. All subjects underwent baseline dynamometry testing of isometric thumb adduction (nondominant hand) before undertaking a fatigue-inducing task of the thumb adductors. Subjects then underwent either 5 minutes of massage applied to the first dorsal interspace or 5 minutes of rest. Subjects were then retested.

RESULTS:

The maximal force recorded after the massage protocol was not significantly different from the maximal force recorded after the rest protocol, with a mean difference of only 0.63 N (95% confidence interval, -12.55 to 13.80 N; P = .92). The maximal gradient of force development after the massage protocol was not significantly different from the maximal gradient recorded after the rest protocol, with a mean decrease in gradient of 19.48 N/s (95% confidence interval, -117.33 to 156.30 N; P = .77).

CONCLUSIONS:

Effleurage massage was not an effective intervention for enhancing the restoration of postfatigue F(max) and G(max) in the small muscles of the hand. The wide variation in response to this massage protocol may support the notion that there is no universal effect of effleurage massage in enhancing recovery from fatigue.

PMID: 16326239

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

39. Life chance characteristics of older users of Swedish massage.

Willison KD, Andrews GJ, Cockerham WC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16290893

 

Source

Institute for Human Development, Life Course and Aging, University of Toronto, 222 College Street, Suite 106, Toronto Ont., Canada M5T 3J1. kevinwillison2003@yahoo.ca

Abstract

The characteristics of those who use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an approach to chronic disease management, are poorly understood. They may however be important to nurses and other health professionals given that CAM is increasingly used by their patients with chronic disorders. In these contexts, the purpose of this study was to ascertain unique life chance population characteristics which significantly influence the use of Swedish massage therapy (SMT), a popular form of CAM, by older adults with chronic health dysfunctions. A multi-site and cross-sectional design was used, as well as a pre-tested postal questionnaire. One hundred forty-one (141) urban, non-institutionalized, English-speaking older persons participated, ranging in age from 60 to 94 years. Findings denote the essential role life chances have on individuals accessing alternative forms of care.

PMID: 16290893

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

40. Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy.

Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Diego M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162447

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

In this article the positive effects of massage therapy on biochemistry are reviewed including decreased levels of cortisol and increased levels of serotonin and dopamine. The research reviewed includes studies on depression (including sex abuse and eating disorder studies), pain syndrome studies, research on auto-immune conditions (including asthma and chronic fatigue), immune studies (including HIV and breast cancer), and studies on the reduction of stress on the job, the stress of aging, and pregnancy stress. In studies in which cortisol was assayed either in saliva or in urine, significant decreases were noted in cortisol levels (averaging decreases 31%). In studies in which the activating neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) were assayed in urine, an average increase of 28% was noted for serotonin and an average increase of 31% was noted for dopamine. These studies combined suggest the stress-alleviating effects (decreased cortisol) and the activating effects (increased serotonin and dopamine) of massage therapy on a variety of medical conditions and stressful experiences.

PMID: 16162447

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

41. Energy healing: an alternative explanation for efficacy attributed to massage therapy?

Murphy DG, Laidlaw TM, Pirrone-Novel C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16110588

 

Comment on

PMID: 16110588

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

42. Massage-like stroking influences plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones, including insulin, and increases weight gain in male rats.

Holst S, Lund I, Petersson M, Uvnäs-Moberg K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15925549

 

Source

Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, P.O. Box 7045, S-13247 Uppsala, Sweden. Sarah.Holst@afys.slu.se

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated massage-like stroking on plasma levels of some gastrointestinal hormones, insulin included, glucose and weight gain. For this purpose, male rats were exposed to stroking on the ventral side of the abdomen for 3 or 14 times. The treatments were given every second day. Control rats were picked up at the same time but received no stroking. Body weight was measured regularly. Rats were decapitated 10 min after the last treatment. Hormone levels were radioimmunoassayed and glucose was measured by spectrophotometry. In rats exposed to 3 sessions of massage-like stroking plasma levels of insulin (p<0.05) and somatostatin (p<0.01) were significantly decreased 10 min after the last treatment. After 14 treatments of massage-like stroking, decreased plasma levels of insulin (p<0.01) and gastrin (p<0.01) as well as increased glucose levels (p<0.01) were observed 10 min after the last treatment. In addition, weight gain was significantly increased (ANOVA p<0.0001) in rats exposed to 14 treatments. In conclusion, repeated massage-like stroking decreased plasma levels of gastrin, insulin and somatostatin, increased plasma levels of glucose and promoted weight gain. The effects were influenced by the number of treatments.

PMID: 15925549

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

43. Natural killer cells and lymphocytes increase in women with breast cancer following massage therapy.

Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Ironson G, Beutler J, Vera Y, Hurley J, Fletcher MA, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, Fraser M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15809216

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. mhernan4@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Women diagnosed with breast cancer received massage therapy or practiced progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for 30-min sessions 3 times a week for 5 weeks or received standard treatment. The massage therapy and relaxation groups reported less depressed mood, anxiety, and pain immediately after their first and last sessions. By the end of the study, however, only the massage therapy group reported being less depressed and less angry and having more vigor. Dopamine levels, Natural Killer cells, and lymphocytes also increased from the first to the last day of the study for the massage therapy group. These findings highlight the benefit of these complementary therapies, most particularly massage therapy, for women with breast cancer.

PMID: 15809216

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

44. The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance, muscle recovery and injury prevention.

Weerapong P, Hume PA, Kolt GS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730338

 

Source

New Zealand Institute of Sport and Recreation Research, Division of Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Abstract

Many coaches, athletes and sports medicine personnel hold the belief, based on observations and experiences, that massage can provide several benefits to the body such as increased blood flow, reduced muscle tension and neurological excitability, and an increased sense of well-being. Massage can produce mechanical pressure, which is expected to increase muscle compliance resulting in increased range of joint motion, decreased passive stiffness and decreased active stiffness (biomechanical mechanisms). Mechanical pressure might help to increase blood flow by increasing the arteriolar pressure, as well as increasing muscle temperature from rubbing. Depending on the massage technique, mechanical pressure on the muscle is expected to increase or decrease neural excitability as measured by the Hoffman reflex (neurological mechanisms). Changes in parasympathetic activity (as measured by heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability) and hormonal levels (as measured by cortisol levels) following massage result in a relaxation response (physiological mechanisms). A reduction in anxiety and an improvement in mood state also cause relaxation (psychological mechanisms) after massage. Therefore, these benefits of massage are expected to help athletes by enhancing performance and reducing injury risk. However, limited research has investigated the effects of pre-exercise massage on performance and injury prevention. Massage between events is widely investigated because it is believed that massage might help to enhance recovery and prepare athletes for the next event. Unfortunately, very little scientific data has supported this claim. The majority of research on psychological effects of massage has concluded that massage produces positive effects on recovery (psychological mechanisms). Post-exercise massage has been shown to reduce the severity of muscle soreness but massage has no effects on muscle functional loss. Notwithstanding the belief that massage has benefits for athletes, the effects of different types of massage (e.g. petrissage, effleurage, friction) or the appropriate timing of massage (pre-exercise vs post-exercise) on performance, recovery from injury, or as an injury prevention method are not clear. Explanations are lacking, as the mechanisms of each massage technique have not been widely investigated. Therefore, this article discusses the possible mechanisms of massage and provides a discussion of the limited evidence of massage on performance, recovery and muscle injury prevention. The limitations of previous research are described and further research is recommended.

PMID: 15730338

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

45. Trends in variability of the central blood circulation in healthy individuals in response to massage of the collar cervical region.

[Article in Russian]

Sabir'ianov AR, Sabir'ianova ES, Epishev VV.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15717530

 

Abstract

Dynamics of slow wave variability of heart rate and left ventricular ejection fraction was studied in the course of 10-day course of collar region massage and that of zone related by reflex with circulation. It was found that such massage can produce changes in regulation of the above indices.

PMID: 15717530

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

46. Effect of reflexology on EEG--a nonlinear approach.

Kannathal N, Paul JK, Lim CM, Chua KP.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15481653

 

Source

Electronic and Computer Engineering Division, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore. kna2@np.edu.sg

Abstract

Reflexology is a 4000-year-old art of healing practiced in ancient India, China and Egypt. In the beginning of the 20th century, it spread to the Western world. Reflexologic clinics and massage centers can be found all around the world. In spite of the widespread popularity, to the best of our knowledge, no serious research work has been done in this area, although much scientific research work has been carried out in other Eastern techniques like meditation and yoga. This is why a humble attempt is done in this work to quantitatively assess the effect of reflexological stimulation from a systems point of view. In this work, nonlinear techniques have been used to assess the complexity of EEG with and without reflexological stimulation. We prefer the nonlinear approach, as we believe that the effects are taking place in a subtle way, since there is no direct correlation between reflexological points and modern neuroanatomy.

PMID: 15481653

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

47. Effects of massage on limb and skin blood flow after quadriceps exercise.

Hinds T, McEwan I, Perkes J, Dawson E, Ball D, George K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15292737

 

Source

Centre for Clinical and Biophysical Research into Human Movement, Manchester Metropolitan University, Hassall Road, Alsager, United Kingdom. tessah27@hotmail.com

Abstract

PURPOSE:

At present, there is little scientific evidence that postexercise manual massage has any effect on the factors associated with the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage against a resting control condition upon femoral artery blood flow (FABF), skin blood flow (SKBF), skin (SKT), and muscle (MT) temperature after dynamic quadriceps exercise.

METHODS:

Thirteen male volunteers participated in 3 x 2-min bouts of concentric quadriceps exercise followed by 2 x 6-min bouts of deep effleurage and pétrissage massage or a control (rest) period of similar duration in a counterbalanced fashion. Measures of FABF, SKBF, SKT, MT, blood lactate concentration (BLa), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were taken at baseline, immediately after exercise, as well as at the midpoint and end of the massage/rest periods. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA.

RESULTS:

Significant main effects were found for all variables over time due to effects of exercise. Massage to the quadriceps did not significantly elevate FABF (end-massage 760 +/- 256 vs end-control 733 +/- 161 mL x min(-1)), MT, BL, HR, and BP over control values (P < 0.05). SKBF (end-massage 150 +/- 49 vs end control 6 +/- 4 au) SKT (end-massage 32.2 +/- 0.9 vs end-control 31.1 +/- 1.3degreesC) were elevated after the application of massage compared with the control trial (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

From these data it is proposed that without an increase in arterial blood flow, any increase in SKBF is potentially diverting flow away from recovering muscle. Such a response would question the efficacy of massage as an aid to recovery in postexercise settings.

PMID: 15292737

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

48. Effect of massage of the hamstring muscle group on performance of the sit and reach test.

Barlow A, Clarke R, Johnson N, Seabourne B, Thomas D, Gal J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15155444

 

Source

School of Applied Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate if a single massage of the hamstring muscle group would alter the performance of the sit and reach test.

METHODS:

Before treatment, each of 11 male subjects performed the sit and reach test. The treatment consisted of either massage of the hamstring muscle group (both legs, total time about 15 minutes) or supine rest with no massage. Performance of the sit and reach test was repeated after treatment. Each subject returned the subsequent week to perform the tests again, receiving the alternative treatment relative to their initial visit. Mean percentage changes in sit and reach scores after treatment were calculated for the massage and no massage treatments, and analysed using Student's t tests.

RESULTS:

Mean (SD) percentage changes in sit and reach scores after massage and no massage were small (6.0 (4.3)% and 4.6 (4.8)% respectively) and not significantly different for subjects with relatively high (15 cm and above) values before treatment. Mean percentage changes in sit and reach scores for subjects with relatively low values before treatment (below 15 cm) were large (18.2 (8.2)% and 15.5 (16.2)% respectively), but no significant differences were found between the massage and no massage groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

A single massage of the hamstring muscle group was not associated with any significant increase in sit and reach performance immediately after treatment in physically active young men.

PMID: 15155444

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1724798

Free PMC Article

 

50.Effect of reflex-segmental massage on central hemodynamics in healthy people].

[Article in Russian]

Sabir'ianov AR, Shevtsov AV, Sabir'ianova ES, Nenasheva AV, Ustiuzhanin SG, Mkrtumian AM, Sergeeva NV.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15154342

 

Abstract

Bioimpedance tetrapolar rheopolygraphy was made in 18-22-year-old athletes in lying position and active orthostasis using computer technology Kentavr PRS (Microlux). The study group of 40 men received a 10-day course of massage including classic massage of the spine and neck, reflex-segmental massage of the left scapula, region between the left scapula and the vertebral column, left great chest muscle and sites of left attachment of the ribs to the chest. The examinations were made before the massage and after it. The results demonstrate an optimizing effect of reflex-segmental massage technologies on central hemodynamics.

PMID: 15154342

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

51. Effect of massage on blood flow and muscle fatigue following isometric lumbar exercise.

Mori H, Ohsawa H, Tanaka TH, Taniwaki E, Leisman G, Nishijo K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15114265

 

Source

Department of Acupuncture, Tsukuba College of Technology, Ibaragi, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study attempted to investigate the influence of massage on the skin and the intramuscular circulatory changes associated with localized muscle fatigue.

MATERIAL/METHODS:

Twenty-nine healthy male subjects participated in two experimental sessions (massage and rest conditions). Subjects lay prone on the table and were instructed to extend their trunks until the inferior portion of their rib cage no longer rested on the table. Subjects held this position for 90 seconds (Load I). Subjects then either received massage on the lumbar region or rested for 5 minutes, then repeated the same load (Load II). Skin blood flow (SBF), muscle blood volume (MBV), skin temperature (ST), and subjects' subjective feelings of fatigue were evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).

RESULTS:

An increase of MBV between pre- and post-load II periods was higher after massage than after rest (p<0.05). An increase of SBF at pre- and post-load II was observed only under massage condition. An increase of SBF between post-load I and pre-load II periods was higher after massage than after rest (p<0.05). An increase of ST between post-load I and post-load II periods was greater after massage than after rest (p<0.05). The VAS score was lower with massage than with rest in the post-treatment period (p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

A significant difference was observed between massage and rest condition on VAS for muscle fatigue. Lumbar massage administration also appeared to have some effect on increasing skin temperature and enhancement of blood flow in local regions.

PMID: 15114265

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

52. Effects of leg massage on recovery from high intensity cycling exercise.

Robertson A, Watt JM, Galloway SD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15039254

 

Source

Department of Sports Studies, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The effect of massage on recovery from high intensity exercise is debatable. Many studies on massage suffer from methodological flaws such as poor standardisation of previous exercise, lack of dietary control, and inappropriate massage duration.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the effects of leg massage compared with passive recovery on lactate clearance, muscular power output, and fatigue characteristics after repeated high intensity cycling exercise, with the conditions before the intervention controlled and standardised.

METHODS:

Nine male games players participated. They attended the laboratory on two occasions one week apart and at the same time of day. Dietary intake and activity were replicated for the two preceding days on each occasion. After baseline measurement of heart rate and blood lactate concentration, subjects performed a standardised warm up on the cycle ergometer. This was followed by six standardised 30 second high intensity exercise bouts, interspersed with 30 seconds of active recovery. After five minutes of active recovery and either 20 minutes of leg massage or supine passive rest, subjects performed a second standardised warm up and a 30 second Wingate test. Capillary blood samples were drawn at intervals, and heart rate, peak power, mean power, and fatigue index were recorded.

RESULTS:

There were no significant differences in mean power during the initial high intensity exercise bouts (p = 0.92). No main effect of massage was observed on blood lactate concentration between trials (p = 0.82) or heart rate (p = 0.81). There was no difference in the maximum power (p = 0.75) or mean power (p = 0.66) in the subsequent Wingate test, but a significantly lower fatigue index was observed in the massage trial (p = 0.04; mean (SD) fatigue index 30.2 (4.1)% v 34.2 (3.3)%).

CONCLUSIONS:

No measurable physiological effects of leg massage compared with passive recovery were observed on recovery from high intensity exercise, but the subsequent effect on fatigue index warrants further investigation.

PMID: 15039254

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1724761

Free PMC Article

 

53. Massage therapy of moderate and light pressure and vibrator effects on EEG and heart rate.

Diego MA, Field T, Sanders C, Hernandez-Reif M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14660065

 

Source

University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

Abstract

Three types of commonly used massage therapy techniques were assessed in a sample of 36 healthy adults, randomly assigned to: (1) moderate massage, (2) light massage, or (3) vibratory stimulation group (n = 12 per group). Changes in anxiety and stress were assessed, and EEG and EKG were recorded. Anxiety scores decreased for all groups, but the moderate pressure massage group reported the greatest decrease in stress. The moderate massage group also experienced a decrease in heart rate and EEG changes including an increase in delta and a decrease in alpha and beta activity, suggesting a relaxation response. Finally, this group showed increased positive affect, as indicated by a shift toward left frontal EEG activation. The light massage group showed increased arousal, as indicated by decreased delta and increased deta activity and increased heart rate. The vibratory stimulation group also showed increased arousal, as indicated by increased heart rate and increased theta, alpha, and beta activity.

PMID: 14660065

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

54. The effects of massage on intra muscular temperature in the vastus lateralis in humans.

Drust B, Atkinson G, Gregson W, French D, Binningsley D.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12905085

 

Source

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK. B.Drust@livjm.ac.uk

Abstract

The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of different durations of massage, and ultrasound treatment, on the temperature of the vastus lateralis muscle in males. Deep effleurage massage of the vastus lateralis was performed on seven healthy males (mean +/- SD; age; 28 +/- 4 years, height 1.84 +/- 0.05 m, body mass 85.7 +/- 12 kg) for 5, 10 and 15 min periods. A 5-min period of ultrasound at 45 KHz was also completed by all subjects. Intra muscular temperature (at 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 cm) and thigh skin temperature were assessed pre and post treatment. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout all conditions. Pre treatment intra muscular temperature increased as depth of measurement increased (p = 0.00002). Changes in muscle temperature at 1.5 and 2.5 cm were significantly greater following massage than ultrasound (p < 0.002). No significant differences between massage treatments and ultrasound were noted when intra muscular temperature was measured at 3.5 cm (p > 0.05). Massage also significantly increased both heart rate and thigh skin temperature compared to ultrasound (p < 0.005). Increases in intra muscular temperature, heart rate and thigh skin temperature were the same irrespective of massage duration. These data suggest that massage and ultrasound have only limited effects on deep muscle temperature. As a result such approaches may not be suitable as a preparation strategy for exercise.

PMID: 12905085

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

55. Reflexology--nothing in common with scientific naturopathic treatments.

[Article in German]

Heide M, Heide MH.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19860172

 

Source

Maternus Klinik, Bad Oeynhausen.

Abstract

A host of alternative treatment methods are sold to us as reputable science on the "supermarket of naturopathy" nowadays. "Foot zone therapy", also known as "reflexology" is one of them. Advocates of reflexology claim that certain zones of the feet are linked to internal organs; that "energy forces" run throughout the human body. According to the teachings of Ayurveda and Yoga, a network of more than 72,000 nerve tracts (energy tracts = meridians) is linked to a single, tiny point on the feet, where the energy ends. In reality, however, reflexology is an unconventional, alternative, paramedical and esoterical "outsider" method that has nothing in common with serious naturopathic treatments. Any scientific value to reflexology is to be denied. As opposed to reflexology, genuine, scientifically acknowledged naturopathic methods are not an alternative, but a supplement to modern medicine.

PMID: 19860172

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]