1. The use of mixed methods for therapeutic massage research.

Porcino AJ, Verhoef MJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589698

 

Source

CAMEO (Complementary Medicine Education and Outcomes) Project, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada and.

Abstract

Mixed methods research is the integration of quantitative and qualitative components in a research project. Whether you are reading or designing a mixed methods research project, it is important to be familiar with both qualitative and quantitative research methods and the specific purposes for which they are brought together in a study: triangulation, complementarity, expansion, initiation, or development. In addition, decisions need to be made about the sequencing and the priority or importance of each qualitative and quantitative component relative to the other components, and the point or points at which the various qualitative and quantitative components will be integrated.Mixed methods research is increasingly being recognized for its ability to bring multiple points of view to a research project, taking advantage of the strengths of each of the quantitative and qualitative components to explain or resolve complex phenomena or results. This ability becomes critical when complex healing systems such as therapeutic massage are being studied. Complex healing systems may have multiple physiologic effects, often reflected in changes throughout the patient's body. Additionally, the patient's experience of the treatment may be an important outcome.

PMID: 21589698

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091425

Free PMC Article

 

2. The influence of practice standards on massage therapists' work experience: a phenomenological pilot study.

Fortune LD, Gillespie E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589709

 

Source

School of Human Organization and Development, Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Abstract

This original research is framed in phenomenological methodology, based on interviews conducted and interpreted using qualitative research methods. The findings suggest that, because of both direct and indirect factors (such as the nebulous nature of the work, general isolation in work conditions, and physical concerns), massage therapists perform their work with multiple sources of ambiguity that are potentially anxiety-causing. Licensing offers potential relief for this anxiety, but also generates a new set of frustrations and work concerns. The new concerns include the potential that practice will change to adapt to non-relevant standards and the difficulty of defining a body of work that frequently defies a "one size fits all" categorization. This pilot study suggests several areas for further exploration and also demonstrates the generativity of phenomenological methodology for research related to massage therapy.

PMID: 21589709

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091437

Free PMC Article

 

3. The effects of massage therapy on pain management in the acute care setting.

Adams R, White B, Beckett C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589696

 

Source

Therapy Services, Massage Therapy;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pain management remains a critical issue for hospitals and is receiving the attention of hospital accreditation organizations. The acute care setting of the hospital provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of massage therapy for pain management into the team-centered approach of patient care. PURPOSE AND SETTING: This preliminary study evaluated the effect of the use of massage therapy on inpatient pain levels in the acute care setting. The study was conducted at Flagstaff Medical Center in Flagstaff, Arizona-a nonprofit community hospital serving a large rural area of northern Arizona.

METHOD:

A convenience sample was used to identify research participants. Pain levels before and after massage therapy were recorded using a 0 - 10 visual analog scale. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis of this descriptive study.

PARTICIPANTS:

Hospital inpatients (n = 53) from medical, surgical, and obstetrics units participated in the current research by each receiving one or more massage therapy sessions averaging 30 minutes each. The number of sessions received depended on the length of the hospital stay.

RESULT:

Before massage, the mean pain level recorded by the patients was 5.18 [standard deviation (SD): 2.01]. After massage, the mean pain level was 2.33 (SD: 2.10). The observed reduction in pain was statistically significant: paired samples t(52) = 12.43, r = .67, d = 1.38, p < .001. Qualitative data illustrated improvement in all areas, with the most significant areas of impact reported being overall pain level, emotional well-being, relaxation, and ability to sleep.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study shows that integration of massage therapy into the acute care setting creates overall positive results in the patient's ability to deal with the challenging physical and psychological aspects of their health condition. The study demonstrated not only significant reduction in pain levels, but also the interrelatedness of pain, relaxation, sleep, emotions, recovery, and finally, the healing process.

PMID: 21589696

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091428

Free PMC Article

 

4. Integrating the international classification of functioning, disability, and health model into massage therapy research, education, and practice.

Munk N, Harrison A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589686

 

Source

Gerontology Department, College of Public Health and.

Abstract

Without an increase in clearly defined and clinically significant outcomes research in massage therapy (MT), the practice is in jeopardy of remaining on the fringes of accepted and utilized therapeutic care. This reality will slow the integration of MT into routine preventive, rehabilitative, curative, and supportive care. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization is a comprehensive model of functioning and disability that provides a universal taxonomy of human functioning that is recognized globally. Integration of the ICF model into MT research, education, and practice would provide a foundation for a common language, particularly in regard to examining outcomes of MT.Here, we review the dynamic and respected ICF model as it applies to massage research, outcomes dissemination, education, and practice, with these specific objectives:To describe the specific domains of the ICF modelTo apply the described ICF domains to current massage practice and researchTo discuss how integration of the ICF model enhances communication and translation among those within and to those outside the MT fieldThe ICF model is ideal for application to MT interests because it works outside the typical focus on pathology or a specific organ system. Instead, the ICF focuses on impairment or limitations in functioning associated with health conditions. The ICF also highlights and incorporates the complex interactions of environment and personal factors and the impact that those factors exert on the domains of body structure, activity, and participation. This interaction has unique implications for MT practitioners, researchers, and clients/patients. Furthermore, the ICF model provides a framework for classifying outcomes, which is a critical aspect of clinical research.

PMID: 21589686

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3088523

Free PMC Article

 

5. Lomi Lomi as a massage with movements: a conceptual synthesis?

Posadzki P, Smith TO, Lizis P.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19943576

 

Source

University of East Anglia School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom.

Abstract

This article narratively reviews the evidence of 2 therapeutic modalities, massage and passive movement. The authors suggest that these 2 treatment techniques may be combined as 1 treatment to be used in a variety of clinical settings. We present the rationale through which the concept of massage with movement (MWM) has been developed and constructed from the principles of passive movements with gentle massage during Lomi Lomi massage. It is hypothesized that through further investigation and empirical studies, this concept may allow bodywork and movement therapists, nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists to combine the positive effects of passive movements with those of massage for patients' health benefits, most notably through enhanced relaxation.

PMID: 19943576

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

6. Massage therapy services for healthcare: a telephone focus group study of drivers for clients' continued use of services.

Smith JM, Sullivan SJ, Baxter GD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942108

 

Source

Massage Department, Southern Institute of Technology, Private Bag 90114, Invercargill 9840, New Zealand. jo.smith@sit.ac.nz

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To explore opinions of why clients use, value and continue to seek massage therapy as a healthcare option.

DESIGN:

Telephone focus group methodology was used. Current and repeat users (n = 19) of either relaxation, remedial or sports massage therapy services participated in three telephone focus groups. Audiotaped semi-structured interviews were conducted.

SETTING:

Telephone focus group with massage clients from provincial and urban localities in New Zealand.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Summary of reported themes of the massage experience and suggested drivers for return to, or continuing with massage therapy. Data were transcribed, categorised (NVivo7) and thematically analysed using the general inductive approach.

RESULTS:

Key drivers for return to, or continuing with, massage therapy were: positive outcomes, expectations of goals being met, a regular appointment and the massage therapy culture.

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage therapy is perceived and valued as a personalised, holistic and hands-on approach to health management, which focuses on enhancing relaxation in conjunction with effective touch, within a positive client-therapist relationship and a pleasant non-rushed environment. Massage therapy as a health service is result and client driven but is reinforced by the culture of the experience.

PMID: 19942108

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. Is reflexology an effective intervention? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

Ernst E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19740047

 

Source

Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, United Kingdom. Edzard.Ernst@pms.ac.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the evidence for and against the effectiveness of reflexology for treating any medical condition.

DATA SOURCES:

Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to February 2009 to identify all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). No language restrictions were applied.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:

RCTs of reflexology delivered by trained reflexologists to patients with specific medical conditions. Condition studied, study design and controls, primary outcome measures, follow-up, and main results were extracted.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

18 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. The studies examined a range of conditions: anovulation, asthma, back pain, dementia, diabetes, cancer, foot oedema in pregnancy, headache, irritable bowel syndrome, menopause, multiple sclerosis, the postoperative state and premenstrual syndrome. There were > 1 studies for asthma, the postoperative state, cancer palliation and multiple sclerosis. Five RCTs yielded positive results. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Jadad scale. The methodological quality was often poor, and sample sizes were generally low. Most higher-quality trials did not generate positive findings.

CONCLUSION:

The best evidence available to date does not demonstrate convincingly that reflexology is an effective treatment for any medical condition.

PMID: 19740047

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports.

Fong DT, Chan YY, Mok KM, Yung PSh, Chan KM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640309

 

Source

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China. kaimingchan@cuhk.edu.hk.

Abstract

ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing - a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms). Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60-90 ms). The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41-45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative. Immobilization should not be used as it results in joint stiffness, muscle atrophy and loss of proprioception. Traditional Chinese medicine such as herbs, massage and acupuncture were well applied in China in managing sports injuries, and was reported to be effective in relieving pain, reducing swelling and edema, and restoring normal ankle function. Finally, the best practice of sports medicine would be to prevent the injury. Different previous approaches, including designing prophylactice devices, introducing functional interventions, as well as change of games rules were highlighted. This paper allows the readers to catch up with the previous researches on ankle sprain injury, and facilitate the future research idea on sport-related ankle sprain injury.

PMID:

19640309

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2724472

Free PMC Articl

 

9. The culture of massage therapy: valued elements and the role of comfort, contact, connection and caring.

Smith JM, Sullivan SJ, Baxter GD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19632544

 

Source

Massage Department, Southern Institute of Technology, Private Bag 90114, Invercargill 9840, New Zealand. jo.smith@sit.ac.nz

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the attributes of the therapy encounter valued by repeat users of health-related massage therapy.

DESIGN:

A qualitative design with telephone focus group methodology was used. A total of 19 repeat users of massage therapy participated in three telephone focus groups where audiotaped semi-structured interviews were conducted.

SETTING:

Telephone focus group with massage clients from a range of provincial and urban regions in New Zealand.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Summary of reported themes of the massage experience. Data were thematically analysed using the general inductive approach.

RESULTS:

Six valued elements of the massage encounter (time for care and personal attention, engaging and competent therapist, trust partnership, holism and empowerment, effective touch and enhancing relaxation), four modulators (comfort, contact, connection and caring) and two themes relating to adding experiential value (enjoyment, escapism) characterize the massage therapy culture.

CONCLUSIONS:

The culture of massage therapy care incorporates a number of characteristics that are congruent with the complementary and alternative medicine approach to health. In addition, massage specific factors were identified. The humanistic aspects of the therapy encounter valued by clients offer insight into the growing use of massage therapy and the success of massage therapy outcomes.

PMID: 19632544

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Muscular load to the therapist's shoulder during three alternative techniques for trigger point therapy.

Smith EK, Magarey M, Argue S, Jaberzadeh S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19329053

 

Source

School of Health Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, South Australia. Emily.Smith6@hotmail.com

Abstract

AIM:

To compare the muscular load (level of muscle activity) to the shoulder during alternative approaches to trigger point therapy (TPT).

METHOD:

Massage therapy students (n=7) applied a predetermined level of force to an artificial contact surface. Changes in five pairs of superficial shoulder muscles (indicated by surface electromyography) were recorded while the student performed the single-arm technique (SAT), the double-arm technique (DAT) and the treatment-tool technique (TTT) using TriggerMate, a new treatment tool.

RESULTS:

For the contact arm, muscle activity was significantly decreased using the TTT compared to the SAT (p<0.05) but was not significantly different between the TTT and DAT. For the non-contact arm, none of the test techniques led to significant differences in muscle activity.

CONCLUSIONS:

While there is evidence that the TTT decreases the muscular load to the shoulder of the contact arm, there is no indication of where this load is redistributed.

PMID: 19329053

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

11. Evaluating a massage therapy training and treatment programme in a remote Aboriginal community.

Paterson C, Vindigni D, Polus B, Browell T, Edgecombe G.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18640627

 

Source

Division of Chiropractic, School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Australia. charlotte.paterson@pms.ac.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe a massage therapy and training programme in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia and to develop the frameworks, procedures and processes necessary for future research.

METHOD:

Self-report health questionnaires (MYMOP and W-BQ12) and an ethnographic enquiry that included participant observation and 15 interviews with clients and key informants.

RESULTS:

The project was disrupted by typhoons. Baseline questionnaire responses indicate they may be suitable for this context. Qualitative analysis resulted in a conceptual model of the effects of the programme, which is consistent with a system theory approach. People's accounts were rooted in discussions of the community's history, emotional and physical distress, and limited health care resources. Community-level effects included increasing participation; strengthening local health and educational projects; and opening up new opportunities. Individual level effects included improvement in physical and emotional symptoms, improved function and the receipt of preventative care.

CONCLUSION:

As a result of this early stage research, future studies have a conceptual model to guide them and evidence that a mixed method and a participatory methodology may be the most appropriate design.

PMID: 18640627

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

12. A novel clinical-trial design for the study of massage therapy.

Patterson M, Maurer S, Adler SR, Avins AL.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18534330

 

Source

Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To develop and test the feasibility and acceptability of a structured design for a massage therapy clinical trial that included a treatment arm designed to control for the non-specific effects of a massage therapy intervention.

DESIGN:

Pilot randomized controlled clinical trial.

SETTING:

University-integrated medicine research clinic.

INTERVENTIONS:

Participants were randomized to a structured Swedish-style massage therapy intervention, a light-touch bodywork control intervention, or usual medical care. Details of the interventions are provided.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The primary outcome measures were the adherence of the participants to the study protocol and the perception of the intervention experience.

RESULTS:

Forty-four participants were randomized. Participants often found adherence to the twice-weekly outpatient bodywork interventions to be somewhat difficult; while, overall, 84% of participants completed the study, only 76% of those in an intervention arm successfully completed the trial. Participants randomized to the massage arm expressed uniformly positive attitudes both before and after the intervention. While some participants randomized to the light-touch bodywork arm initially expressed some reservations about their randomization assignment, all participants available for interview were pleased with their experience after the intervention period.

CONCLUSIONS:

The proposed design was found to be relatively straightforward to implement and acceptable to participants. Early disappointment with not receiving massage therapy expressed by the light-touch intervention participants dissipated quickly. Twice-weekly outpatient intervention appointments were found to be highly burdensome for many patients actively undergoing chemotherapy, thus reducing adherence.

PMID: 18534330

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2435386

Free PMC Article

 

13. The efficacy of reflexology: systematic review.

Wang MY, Tsai PS, Lee PH, Chang WY, Yang CM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18489444

 

Source

Graduate Institute of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan.

Abstract

AIM:

This paper is a report of a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of reflexology in any condition.

BACKGROUND:

Anecdotal evidence has shown potential benefits of reflexology in a variety of health conditions. However, the efficacy of reflexology has yet to be determined.

DATA SOURCES:

Cochrane library, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBM review, ProQuest Medical Bundle and SCOPUS databases were searched using the following medical subject headings or key words: reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, foot massage and zone therapy. Chinese articles were searched through the Chinese electronic periodical services and Wangfane database. The publication date was limited from 1996 to 2007.

REVIEW METHODS:

Studies were selected if they were written in English or Chinese, used a controlled clinical trial design, used reflexology as a stand-alone modality, and reported such outcomes as symptoms relief, quality of life and patients' perceptions of reflexology. Study quality was reviewed based on the evidence rating system of the United States Preventive Services Task Force, and studies with the evidence rating of II-2 fair or above were included in this review.

RESULTS:

Among the five studies suitable for review, there was only one report of a statistically significant treatment effect. Among the 12 outcome variables examined, the treatment effect size for urinary symptoms was large, whereas the effect size for other conditions was negligible.

CONCLUSION:

There is no evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions, with the exception of urinary symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Routine provision of reflexology is therefore not recommended.

Comment in

PMID: 18489444

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

14. Steps toward massage therapy guidelines: a first report to the profession.

Grant KE, Balletto J, Gowan-Moody D, Healey D, Kincaid D, Lowe W, Travillian RS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589815

 

Source

McKinnon Institute LLC, Oakland, CA, USA;

Abstract

The massage profession has grown rapidly since the late 1980s. As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a health care profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research-to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other health care stakeholders. In short, we need to create a process for setting guidelines.The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience. It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a health care literature basis for future academic discussions of massage.The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise. Guidelines are targeted for submission to the National Guideline Clearinghouse. Challenges in creating guidelines for massage therapy are discussed. Various stakeholders are considered. Current literature from the wider scope of health care is extensively reviewed. Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies. Finally, a process for creation of massage therapy guidelines is proposed. A central feature of the proposal is the use of a "World Café" symposium to elicit knowledge and solutions from diverse experts. The role of transparency and broad and open peer review is emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines.

PMID: 21589815

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091445

Free PMC Article

 

15. Clinical reasoning in massage therapy.

Lemoon K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589814

 

Source

Freshman (2008), Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, U.S.A.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clinical reasoning has long been a valuable tool for health care practitioners, but it has been under-researched in the field of massage therapy. Case reports have been a useful method for exploring the clinical reasoning process in various fields of manual therapy and can provide a model for similar research in the field of massage therapy. A diagnostically challenging case concerning a client with low back pain serves as a guideline for examining the clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist.

METHODS:

A two-part methodology was employed: Client profileReflective inquiry The inquiry included questions pertaining to beliefs about health problems; beliefs about the mechanisms of pain; medical conditions that could explain the client's symptoms; knowledge of the client's anatomy, assessment, and treatment choices; observations made during treatment; extent of experience in treating similar problems; and ability to recognize clinical patterns.

RESULTS:

The clinical reasoning process of a massage therapist contributed to a differential diagnosis, which provided an explanation for the client's symptoms and led to a satisfactory treatment resolution.

CONCLUSION:

The present report serves as an example of the value of clinical reasoning in the field of massage therapy, and the need for expanded research into its methods and applications. The results of such research could be beneficial in teaching the clinical reasoning process at both the introductory and the advanced levels of massage therapy education.

PMID:

21589814

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091448

Free PMC Article

 

16. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

Kania A, Porcino A, Vehoef MJ.

Source

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Abstract

Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

PMID: 21589716

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091453

Free PMC Article

 

17. Affective massage therapy.

Moyer CA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589715

 

Source

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA.

PMID:

21589715

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091449

Free PMC Article

 

18. Myofascial trigger points.

Lavelle ED, Lavelle W, Smith HS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18054148

 

Source

Department of Anesthesiology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Abstract

Painful conditions of the musculoskeletal system, including myofascial pain syndrome, constitute some of the most important chronic problems encountered in a clinical practice. A myofascial trigger point is a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena. Trigger points may be relieved through noninvasive measures, such as spray and stretch, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, physical therapy, and massage. Invasive treatments for myofascial trigger points include injections with local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or botulism toxin or dry needling. The etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of myofascial trigger points are addressed in this article.

PMID: 18054148

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

19. Working with tactile massage--a grounded theory about the energy controlling system.

Andersson K, Wändell P, Törnkvist L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950181

 

Source

Center for Family and Community Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden. katarina.andersson@sll.se

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to acquire a theoretical understanding of what it is like to work as a tactile massage therapist (TMT). There is insufficient knowledge in this area--despite increasing demand and implementation of tactile massage; so 26 female TMTs were interviewed (6 interview groups in Stockholm County). Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. The analysis resulted in a theoretical model that explains how TMTs individually underwent a transformation in which they learned about the energy-controlling system (energy takers, energy returners, and energy controllers) and managed to implement this demanding treatment, while maintaining health and inner balance in order to have total presence during treatment sessions. Results showed that total presence was crucial for implementing high-quality treatment, and inability to control energy may pose a risk to inner balance and health among TMTs.

PMID: 17950181

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

20. Training massage therapists to work in oncology.

Miner W.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087760

 

Source

Integrative Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Abstract

Professional massage therapists (MTs) require specialized training to work safely and effectively with cancer patients and to prepare them for their role in multidisciplinary clinical settings. This article describes "Medical Massage for the Cancer Patient," a certificate course offered to achieve those goals by the Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. MTs are taught the clinical, logistic, and legal requirements; the basic details of cancer and cancer treatments; necessary massage adaptations; and what will be required of them as members of a health care team. The core competencies this training program aims to impart, and the program developed to reach them, are outlined here. Specific training by a credible oncology team is required prior to any hands-on work with cancer patients.

PMID: 19087760

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

21. What can be learned from Cochrane systematic reviews of massage that can guide future research?

Ezzo J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388773

 

Source

JPS Enterprises, Baltimore, MD, USA. jeanetteezzo@prodigy.net

Abstract

Massage is an increasingly popular complementary and alternative medicine modality used for a variety of conditions. Cochrane massage reviews are a gold mine of observations regarding the methodologic issues inherent in massage trials and have raised important questions, which can be used to guide future research. Among the research issues raised in Cochrane reviews are questions about combination trials, practitioner qualifications, adequate doses, and appropriate control groups. This article summarizes these key research issues.

PMID: 17388773

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

22. How important is research-based practice to chiropractors and massage therapists?

Suter E, Vanderheyden LC, Trojan LS, Verhoef MJ, Armitage GD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17320731

 

Source

Health Systems & Workforce Research Unit, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. esther.suter@calgaryhealthregion.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study evaluated the perceptions of research, frequency of use of research findings in practice, and the level of research skills of chiropractors and massage therapists in Canada. Predictors of application of research findings in clinical practice were also explored.

METHODS:

A survey was mailed to members of the College of Chiropractors of Alberta (n = 833) and the Massage Therapist Association of Alberta (n = 650). Univariate and logistic regression analysis were conducted with SPSS and Stata.

RESULTS:

A total of 483 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 32.6%). Chiropractors and massage therapists reported an overall positive perception toward research, acknowledging the importance of research to validate their practice. Although both groups felt comfortable using the library, they had little confidence in their research skills and overall application of research in practice was limited. Significant differences were found between the 2 professional groups, with chiropractors reporting more research skills and evidence-based practice. Primary discipline, frequent referral to peer-reviewed journals, and strong agreement with the statement that "research adds credibility to my discipline" were predictors of research application in practice.

CONCLUSION:

It appears that in Canada neither chiropractors nor massage therapists consistently apply research in practice, which may result from a lack of research education and research skills. The differences between the 2 professional groups may be attributed to the chiropractic profession's relatively more research-focused professional training. Strategies to encourage greater research uptake and evidence-based behavior by practitioners include professional association incentives, such as education credits or practitioner cooperatives that would provide time and support for research.

PMID: 17320731

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

23. Reports by some massage therapists of a sense of 'special connection' that is sometimes experienced with clients/patients.

Hyland ME.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17200607

 

Source

School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, UK. mhyland@plymouth.ac.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to provide exploratory qualitative data on anecdotal reports by some physical therapists that they sometimes experience a sense of 'special connection' with patients or clients.

PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:

21 self-selected massage therapists provided written comments about their experience of therapy in response to a questionnaire (free-form response format) asking about the experience of connection.

RESULTS:

20 out of 21 therapists reported a sense of 'special connection'. Content analysis suggested 10 themes, the main ones relating to the special connection being: (a) a sense of oneness or unity with the patient; (b) intimacy, trust and the touching of souls; (c) meditative, trance-like, floating relaxation; (d) 2-way flow of energy, and the mutual contribution of patient and therapist characteristics in forming this connection; (e) that it tends to be there or not but if there, it varies in degree.

CONCLUSION:

These reports are similar in some respects to descriptions given by healers of the experience of healing, suggesting that some massage therapists, and possibly some other complementary or conventional therapists engage, unknowingly, in a process of healing while they practice the therapy for which they have been trained.

PMID: 17200607

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

24. Development of a taxonomy to describe massage treatments for musculoskeletal pain.

Sherman KJ, Dixon MW, Thompson D, Cherkin DC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16796753

 

Source

Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. sherman.k@ghc.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

One of the challenges in conducting research in the field of massage and bodywork is the lack of consistent terminology for describing the treatments given by massage therapists. The objective of this study was to develop a taxonomy to describe what massage therapists actually do when giving a massage to patients with musculoskeletal pain.

METHODS:

After conducting a review of the massage treatment literature for musculoskeletal pain, a list of candidate techniques was generated for possible inclusion in the taxonomy. This list was modified after discussions with a senior massage therapist educator and seven experienced massage therapists participating in a study of massage for neck pain.

RESULTS:

The taxonomy was conceptualized as a three level classification system, principal goals of treatment, styles, and techniques. Four categories described the principal goal of treatment (i.e., relaxation massage, clinical massage, movement re-education and energy work). Each principal goal of treatment could be met using a number of different styles, with each style consisting of a number of specific techniques. A total of 36 distinct techniques were identified and described, many of which could be included in multiple styles.

CONCLUSION:

A new classification system is presented whereby practitioners using different styles of massage can describe the techniques they employ using consistent terminology. This system could help facilitate standardized reporting of massage interventions.

PMID: 16796753

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1544351

Free PMC Article

 

25. The attitudes toward massage (ATOM) scale: reliability, validity, and associated findings.

Moyer CA, Rounds J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19118790

 

Source

University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA. christopher.a.moyer@gmail.com

Abstract

Despite the key role of attitudes in guiding behavior, no systematic examination of attitudes toward massage has been conducted and no standard assessments have been created. We developed the attitudes toward massage (ATOM) scale, a nine-item measure of an overall attitude toward massage that includes two distinct subscales assessing the attitudes of Massage as Healthful and Massage as Pleasant. These subscales are reliable (alpha>.70 and >.80, respectively), covary with major personality traits and dispositional sensitivities, and are positively correlated with broader attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine. Clinical evidence suggests that these attitudes change in response to receiving massage, though further research is needed. Supplemental items administered with the ATOM illustrate a general preference for female massage therapists while also showing this preference to be stronger in men. Attitudes pertaining to massage and sexual arousal, which may stand in the way of trying massage for some persons, are also examined. With or without the supplemental items, the ATOM scale is an easily administered measure for assessing attitudes toward massage that can be used in research or practice settings.

PMID: 19118790

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

26. IN-CAM Outcomes Database: Its Relevance and Application in Massage Therapy Research and Practice.

Kania A, Verhoef MJ, Dryden T, Ware MA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589721

 

Source

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada;

Abstract

One of the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities in North America is massage therapy (MT). Research to date indicates many potential health benefits of MT, suggesting that ongoing research efforts to further elucidate and substantiate preliminary findings within the massage profession should be given high priority. Central to the development of a sound evidence base for MT are the use of valid, reliable, and relevant outcome measures in research, and practice in assessing the effectiveness of MT. The purpose of the present article is to introduce MT researchers and massage therapists interested in using outcome measures in research and clinical practice to the IN-CAM Outcomes Database website by describing the Outcomes Database and identifying its utility in MT research and practice. The IN-CAM Outcomes Database is a centralized location where information on outcome measures is collected and made accessible to users. Outcome measures are organized in the database within the Framework of Outcome Domains. The Framework includes health domains relevant to conventional medicine and CAM alike, and health domains that have been identified as important to CAM interventions. Users of the website may search for information on a specific outcome measure, plan research projects, and engage in discussions related to outcomes assessment in the CAM field with other users and with members of the CAM research community. As the MT profession continues to evolve and move toward evidence-informed practice, the IN-CAM Outcomes Database website can be a valuable resource for MT researchers and massage therapists.

PMID: 21589721

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091455

Free PMC Article

 

27. The cultural and philosophical aspects of pressure, massage, and touch healing as alternative therapies.

Oumeish OY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15788892

 

Source

Jordan Laser Center, PO Box 65, Prince Rashid Suburb, Amman 11831, Jordan. oumeishdermatol@hotmail.com

Abstract

Integrative medicine is becoming more popular, not only in developing nations, but also in countries such as the United States. Acupuncture, which is practiced more than any other kind of alternative medicine, is based on the philosophy and culture of old Chinese healing. Pressure, massage, and touch healing depend on stimulation by the fingers rather than needles, although they are based on acupuncture principles. Touch has social, educational, cultural, and humanitarian aspects. Touch therapy has been shown to have excellent effects on children's growth, development, and emotional well-being. In adults, a 15-minute rubdown by fingertips can lead to relaxation and sleep. It is also useful for premature babies. Such therapies were practiced in the Old World, but have been rediscovered in the New World. They represent some aspects of the old, noble art of healing.

PMID: 15788892

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

28. The history of massage in the ways of life and healing in India.

[Article in German]

Hentschel HD, Schneider J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15630807

 

Abstract

The use of massage in India can be accounted for back to the time of the first indo-aryan settlements; its is however, likely that massage was already in use during the preceding era of the Indus valley culture.The important cultural function of the ancient practice of home massage can be seen in that massage was often linked to social, religious or ritual customs. Massage was considered to be beneficial to health. The classic Ayurveda texts mention massage in this sense and recommend it as an almost indispensible healing factor. To this day, massage is regularly used in India for the promotion of general health and fitness as well as in treating minor health problems. Ayurvedic doctors also employ massage as a complete therapy to be applied systematically in the treatment of serious illness. Massage is most commonly applied to the entire body or individual body parts with the aid of ample amounts of warmed oils and, at times, other substances which are specific to the patient's constitution. The usual massage method is similar in some ways to the western method. The Ayurveda system, moreover, has a wide range of special massage methods which are used to treat particular illnesses. While today the efficacy and effect of western massage is, in large part, accounted for scientifically, in India, common, traditional massage is usually employed based on ancient experience. The general social conditions in southern Asia will likely ensure that these types of massage will continue to be a respected and frequently practised aspect of Indian culture in the future.

PMID: 15630807

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

29. The Trager approach in the treatment of chronic headache: a pilot study.

Foster KA, Liskin J, Cen S, Abbott A, Armisen V, Globe D, Knox L, Mitchell M, Shtir C, Azen S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15478785

 

Source

Statistical Consultation and Research Center, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Although the traditional treatment of headache has been pharmacological, there have been many attempts to treat headaches with other methods with mixed levels of success.

OBJECTIVE:

To obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of the Trager approach in the treatment of chronic headache.

DESIGN:

Small-scale randomized controlled clinical trial.

SETTING:

University-based clinic.

PATIENTS:

Thirty-three volunteers with a self-reported history of chronic headache with at least one headache per week for at least 6 months.

INTERVENTIONS:

Medication only control group, medication and attention control group, and medication and Trager treatment group.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of headache, medication usage and headache quality of life (HQOL) obtained at baseline and after a 6-week treatment period.

RESULTS:

Analyses of variance demonstrated significant improvement in HQOL for the Trager and attention control groups, and reduction in medication usage for the Trager group (P < 0.05). Within-group analyses revealed that participants randomized to Trager demonstrated a significant decrease in the frequency of headaches (P = 0.045), improvement in HQOL (P = 0.045), and a 44% decrease in medication usage (P = 0.03). Participants randomized to the attention control group demonstrated a significant improvement in HQOL (P = 0.035) and a 19% decrease in medication usage (P = 0.15). Participants randomized to the no-treatment control group revealed a significant increase in headache duration (P = 0.025) and intensity (P = 0.025), and a declination in HQOL (P = 0.035).

CONCLUSIONS:

The Trager approach decreased headache frequency and medication usage. Trager and physician attention improved HQOL. A larger, multi-site study is recommended.

PMID: 15478785

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

30. Washing hands before and after performing massages? Changes in bacterial survival count on skin of a massage therapist and a client during massage therapy.

Donoyama N, Wakuda T, Tanitsu T, Ishii E, Ichiman Y.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15353027

 

Source

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tsukuba College of Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. esperance.dono.@nifty.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Massage therapy involves direct contact between the therapist and the client in a clinical setting, which can result in the transfer of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of bacteria transfer between a therapist and a client during a massage session and differences between types of lubricants used.

DESIGN:

Medium cultures were taken from the therapist's palms and the client's skin before, during, and after the massage session. Experiments proceeded with the following settings: use of three different types of lubricants, without the use of a lubricant, and without massage as control. After each massage session, the therapist washed his or her hands and a bacterial sample was again taken.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Changes in bacteria count.

RESULTS:

(1) Bacteria count on the therapist's palms increased during and after massage with and without the use of lubricant. There was no change in the case of no massage. (2) Bacteria count on the client's skin decreased during and after massage with the use of three different kinds of lubricants compared to the no-massage control. However, an increase was evident when no lubricant was used. (3) After hand washing with water for 20 seconds after each massage session, there were still bacteria on the therapist's palms. However, bacteria count differed with the type of lubricant used.

CONCLUSION:

Bacteria from the client's skin transferred to the therapist's hands during massage therapy. Bacteria count when no lubricant was used was greater than massage sessions using lubricants.

PMID: 15353027

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

31. The effects of a foot-reflexo-massage education program on foot care in diabetic patients].

[Article in Korean]

Lee YH.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15314416

 

Source

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine Kwandong University, Korea. lyh@kwandong.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of foot care education program using foot-reflexo-massage in diabetic patients.

METHOD:

A convenience sample of non-equivalent control group time series design was used. It provided foot care education to diabetic patients through small book for both group. For the experimental group, foot-reflexo-massage was taught by a researcher and research assistants. Analysis was done by Repeated Measured ANOVA.

RESULT:

There was significant increase in foot care knowledge, self care behavior, between the experimental group and the control group over three different times. There was significant in skin temperature and pulse of foot over three different times and interaction by groups or over time, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was no significant difference in blood flow volume and capillary filling time over three different times, between groups, but there was interaction by groups or over time. But there was significant difference in discrimination in change of dosalis pedis artery blood flow.

CONCLUSION:

Findings indicate that this study may contribute to develop nursing intervention for foot care of diabetic patients.

PMID: 15314416

[PubMed]

 

32.Paediatric nurses' attitudes to massage and aromatherapy massage.

Hunt V, Randle J, Freshwater D.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279861

 

Source

Childrens Unit, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK.

Abstract

Complementary therapies have continued to increase in popularity in healthcare and it is widely accepted that they can be incorporated into the nursing role. However, this acceptance does not necessarily mean that the introduction of therapies into the nursing arena has been without confusion and without professional and legal implications. Consequently, this small-scale, qualitative study aimed to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of paediatric nurses of two therapies, namely massage and aromatherapy massage. There is a dearth of literature exploring nurses' perceptions to the incorporation of these therapies, especially in the arena of paediatric nursing where massage and aromatherapy massage are common practice. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with qualified nurses and revealed the themes of 'benefit', 'family centred care', 'nursing care' and 'being held back'. It was found that at some stage during their professional career each nurse had performed massage and/or aromatherapy massage. All nurses were able to recall certain benefits of the therapies for the children that they had observed and many discussed the importance of involving the family as a way of including them in to the care of their child. However, for the nurses in this study, it was evident that the incorporation of complementary therapies into the nursing role was determined by the context in which they practised. Due to the dominance of the medical model, nurses faced pressures and conflicts in the realities of their nursing work, which meant they were often unable to carry out these therapies.

PMID: 15279861

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

33. Ice massage. Effects on exercise-induced muscle damage.

Howatson G, Van Someren KA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14767412

 

Source

School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Kingston-upon-Thames, UK. k972725@kingston.ac.uk

Abstract

AIM:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ice massage on the signs and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage.

METHODS:

Nine recreationally resistance trained males performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on 2 separate occasions; this was performed on the dominant or non-dominant arm in a random cross over design. The protocol consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of single arm biceps curls, at 70% of a pre-determined one repetition maximum (1RM), with the eccentric phase of the contraction extended to 7 seconds. Subjects were also randomly assigned to an ice massage group or control group in the cross over design and received treatments immediately post-exercise, 24 hours and 48 hours post-exercise. 1RM, plasma creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girth and range of motion (ROM) were measured pre, immediately post, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours post-exercise.

RESULTS:

Significant time effects were observed for all dependent variables (p<0.05), though no significant group effects were observed. A group by time interaction was found for CK (p<0.05), which at 72 hours post-exercise was significantly lower in the ice massage group (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION:

These results indicate that although ice massage reduces the appearance of CK it has no other effect on signs and symptoms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage.

PMID:

14767412

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

34. A meta-analysis of massage therapy research.

Moyer CA, Rounds J, Hannum JW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14717648

 

Source

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820-6990, USA.

Abstract

Massage therapy (MT) is an ancient form of treatment that is now gaining popularity as part of the complementary and alternative medical therapy movement. A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that used random assignment to test the effectiveness of MT. Mean effect sizes were calculated from 37 studies for 9 dependent variables. Single applications of MT reduced state anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate but not negative mood, immediate assessment of pain, and cortisol level. Multiple applications reduced delayed assessment of pain. Reductions of trait anxiety and depression were MT's largest effects, with a course of treatment providing benefits similar in magnitude to those of psychotherapy. No moderators were statistically significant, though continued testing is needed. The limitations of a medical model of MT are discussed, and it is proposed that new MT theories and research use a psychotherapy perspective.

PMID: 14717648

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

35. A randomized clinical trial of the treatment effects of massage compared to relaxation tape recordings on diffuse long-term pain.

Hasson D, Arnetz B, Jelveus L, Edelstam B.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14665792

 

Source

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. dan.hasson@pubcare.uu.se

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Long-term musculoskeletal pain is a common problem in primary health care settings that is difficult to treat. Two common treatments are mental relaxation and massage. Scientific studies show contradictory results. Furthermore, many studies lack long-term follow-up even though it is a chronic disorder. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to assess possible effects of massage as compared to listening to relaxation tapes in conditions of 'diffuse' and long-term musculoskeletal pain.

METHODS:

129 patients from primary health care suffering from long-term musculoskeletal pain were randomized to either a massage or mental relaxation group, and assessed before, during and after treatment.

RESULTS:

During treatment there was a significant improvement in the three main outcome measures: self-rated health, mental energy, and muscle pain only in the massage group as compared to the relaxation group. However, at the 3-month post-treatment follow-up, there was a significant worsening in the outcome measures (time x group effect p < 0.05) back to initial rating levels in the massage group as compared to no changes in the relaxation group.

CONCLUSION:

Massage, but not mental relaxation, is beneficial in attenuating diffuse musculoskeletal symptoms. Beneficial effects were registered only during treatment. This lack of long-term benefits could be due to the short treatment period or treatments such as these do not address the underlying causes of pain. Future studies of long-term pain should include longer treatment periods and post-treatment follow-up. It might also be worthwhile assessing the long-term benefits from booster treatment after the initial intense treatment period.

Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

PMID: 14665792

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

36. First introduction of massage treatment in modern Japan].

[Article in Japanese]

Wakuda T.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14518472

 

Abstract

Ln early modern times, massage treatment developed in Europe. During the 1880s and 1890s, it is said that massage treatment was first introduced into Japan. But at the present time it may be said that it is not clearly understood how it was introduced from Europe into Japan and how it was developed there. I will explain the circumstances of how it developed in Japan. In 1884, when Kojo Hashimoto, the chief army doctor, was on a tour of medical missions in Europe, he obtained the illustrated book of massage: "Die Technik der Massage" (first ed. 1884), which was written by Dr. Albert Reibmayr of Austria, and he brought it back to Japan. Following this, Jiko Nagase, an army doctor, actually tried its treatment, using the first illustrated book of massage. He confirmed that massage treatment was a great medical treatment and translated this book into Japanese and published it for its popularisation. I was shown an image of the first massage of Dr. Reibmayr in looking at his first illustrated book in modern Japan. Thus, Kojo Hashimoto brought massage into Japan, and it was spread gradually among government officials and the people.

PMID: 14518472

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

37. Correlation study between conventional medical diagnosis and the diagnosis by reflexology (non conventional)].

[Article in Hebrew]

Raz I, Rosengarten Y, Carasso R.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14518162

 

Source

Joyce and Irving Goldman Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Reflexology is a non-conventional method for diagnosis and treatment of physical and medical problems by touching or applying pressure on certain areas on the foot surface. The reflexology method is based on the presumption that all body organs and various systems are represented on the foot surface.

AIM:

The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the reflexological diagnosis method.

METHODS:

Eighty patients from various clinics and departments in the Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, were examined twice by two different reflexologists. The diagnostics that resulted from these examinations were compared with the conventional medical diagnostics of the same patients. In addition, the level of correlation between the two reflexological examinations was tested.

RESULTS:

Out of 18 body systems in 6 a statistically significant correlation was found between the conventional medical diagnosis and the two reflexological examinations. In 4 body systems, there was a statistically significant correlation between the conventional medical diagnosis and one out of the two reflexological examinations. The systems in which correlation was found are characterized by having a defined anatomic region. The examination of the significance of the diagnoses regarding the components of the body systems resulted in statistical significance in only 4 out of the 32 components. Between the two reflexological examinations, a statistically significant correlation was found in 14 out of the 18 body systems, and in only 15 out of the 32 system components.

CONCLUSION:

The reflexology method has the ability to diagnose (reliable and valid) at a systematic level only, and this is applicable only to those body systems that represent organs and regions with an exact anatomic location.

PMID: 14518162

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]