1. Anthroposophic therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity: a two-year prospective study in outpatients.

Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Kienle GS, Meinecke C, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20830200

 

Source

Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Freiburg, Germany;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Anthroposophic treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications.

METHODS:

We studied 61 consecutive children starting anthroposophic treatment for ADHD symptoms under routine outpatient conditions. Primary outcome was FBB-HKS (a parents' questionnaire for ADHD core symptoms, 0-3), and secondary outcomes were disease and symptom scores (physicians' and parents' assessment, 0-10) and quality of life (KINDL(®) total score, 0-100).

RESULTS:

A total of 67% of patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, 15% had an exclusion diagnosis such as pervasive developmental disorders, while 18% did not fulfill ADHD criteria for another reason. Anthroposophic treatment modalities used were eurythmy therapy (in 56% of patients), art therapy (20%), rhythmical massage therapy (8%), and medications (51%). From baseline to six-month follow-up, all outcomes improved significantly; average improvements were FBB-HKS total score 0.30 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.43; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS inattention 0.36 (95% CI: 0.21-0.50; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS hyperactivity 0.29 (95% CI: 0.14-0.44; P < 0.001), FBB-HKS impulsivity 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03-0.40; P < 0.001), disease score 2.33 (95% CI: 1.84-2.82; P < 0.001), symptom score 1.66 (95% CI: 1.17-2.16; P < 0.001), and KINDL 5.37 (95% CI: 2.27-8.47; P = 0.001). Improvements were similar in patients not using stimulants (90% of patients at months 0-6) and were maintained until last follow-up after 24 months.

CONCLUSION:

Children with ADHD symptoms receiving anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life.

PMID: 20830200

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2934607

 

2. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia.

van der Ploeg ES, Eppingstall B, O'Connor DW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649945

 

Source

Aged Mental Health Research Unit, Monash University, Kingston Centre, Warrigal Road, Cheltenham, Melbourne, VIC 3192, Australia. Eva.vanderPloeg@monash.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents.

METHODS/DESIGN:

We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms.

DISCUSSION:

If our results show that the use of lavender oil is effective in reducing challenging behaviours in individuals with dementia, it will potentially provide a safer intervention rather than reliance on pharmacology alone. The study's findings will translate easily to other countries and cultures.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN 12609000569202.

PMID: 20649945

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC291600

 

3. Sunflower therapy for children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): a randomised, controlled trial.

Bull L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17210507

 

Source

Department of Education, Brunel University, Twickenham, TW1 1PT, UK. leona@mail.com

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and perceived effectiveness of the Sunflower therapy in the treatment of childhood dyslexia. The Sunflower therapy includes applied kinesiology, physical manipulation, massage, homeopathy, herbal remedies and neuro-linguistic programming. A multi-centred, randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 70 dyslexic children aged 6-13 years. The research study aimed to test the research hypothesis that dyslexic children 'feel better' and 'perform better' as a result of treatment by the Sunflower therapy. Children in the treatment group and the control group were assessed using a battery of standardised cognitive, Literacy and self-esteem tests before and after the intervention. Parents of children in the treatment group gave feedback on their experience of the Sunflower therapy. Test scores were compared using the Mann Whitney, and Wilcoxon statistical tests. While both groups of children improved in some of their test scores over time, there were no statistically significant improvements in cognitive or Literacy test performance associated with the treatment. However, there were statistically significant improvements in academic self-esteem, and reading self-esteem, for the treatment group. The majority of parents (57.13%) felt that the Sunflower therapy was effective in the treatment of learning difficulties. Further research is required to verify these findings, and should include a control group receiving a dummy treatment to exclude placebo effects.

Comment in

PMID: 17210507

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

4. Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

Rossignol DA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19917212

 

Source

International Child Development Resource Center, Melbourne, FL 32934, USA. rossignolmd@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage.

METHODS:

A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments. A grade of recommendation ("Grade") was then assigned to each treatment using a validated evidence-based guideline as outlined in this review: A: Supported by at least 2 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or 1 systematic review. B: Supported by at least 1 prospective RCT or 2 nonrandomized controlled trials. C: Supported by at least 1 nonrandomized controlled trial or 2 case series. D: Troublingly inconsistent or inconclusive studies or studies reporting no improvements. Potential adverse effects for each treatment were also reviewed.

RESULTS:

Grade A treatments for ASD include melatonin, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, naltrexone, and music therapy. Grade B treatments include carnitine, tetrahydrobiopterin, vitamin C, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory treatments, oxytocin, and vision therapy. Grade C treatments for ASD include carnosine, multivitamin/mineral complex, piracetam, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B6/magnesium, elimination diets, chelation, cyproheptadine, famotidine, glutamate antagonists, acupuncture, auditory integration training, massage, and neurofeedback.

CONCLUSIONS:

The reviewed treatments for ASD are commonly used, and some are supported by prospective RCTs. Promising treatments include melatonin, antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, naltrexone, and music therapy. All of the reviewed treatments are currently considered off-label for ASD (ie, not FDA-approved) and some have adverse effects. Further studies exploring these treatments are needed. Physicians treating children with an ASD should make it standard practice to inquire about each child's possible use of these types of treatments.

PMID: 19917212

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

5. Outcomes of a pilot training program in a qigong massage intervention for young children with autism.

Silva LM, Ayres R, Schalock M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18826014

 

Source

Teaching Research Institute, Western Oregon University, PO Box 688, Salem, OR 97308, USA. lmtsilvaqigong@comcast.net

Abstract

Sensory impairment is a common and significant feature of children on the autism spectrum. In 2005, a qigong massage intervention based on Chinese medicine and delivered by a doctor of Chinese medicine was shown to improve sensory impairment and adaptive behavior in a small controlled study of young children with autism. In 2006, the Qigong Sensory Training (QST) program was developed to train early intervention professionals to provide the QST intervention. This article describes the preliminary evaluation of the QST program as piloted with 15 professionals and 26 children and outcomes testing using standardized tests of sensory impairment and adaptive behavior. Results of outcomes comparing delivery by QST-trained therapists with delivery by a doctor of Chinese medicine showed that both groups improved and that there was no difference in outcome between the two groups. The intervention and training program are described, and implications for future research are discussed.

PMID: 18826014

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and complementary/alternative medicine.

Sawni A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18822835

 

Source

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Beaubien Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48301, USA. asawni@med.wayne.edu

Abstract

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased both by parents and health care providers. Despite scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, the use of stimulants has received negative publicity and, for many parents, is worrisome. Concerns regarding adverse effects and the prospect of long-term use of pharmacologic treatments make many parents uncomfortable thus they seek "alternative treatments." With the information explosion produced by the Internet, marketing for alternative therapies such as herbal remedies, elimination diets, and food supplements for ADHD has increased. Many people use CAM because they are attracted to the CAM philosophies and health beliefs, dissatisfied with the process or results of conventional treatments, or concerned about adverse effects of stimulants. Although some scientific evidence exists regarding some CAM therapies, for most there are key questions regarding safety and efficacy of these treatments in children. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview and focus on the evidence-based studies of CAM modalities that are commonly used for ADHD.

PMID: 18822835

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. Complementary and alternative medical therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism.

Weber W, Newmark S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18061787

 

Source

School of Naturopathic Medicine, Bastyr University, 14500 Juanita Drive NE, Kenmore, WA 98021, USA. wendyw@bastyr.edu

Abstract

Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies are commonly used by parents for their children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders. The use of these therapies is well documented, yet the evidence of the safety and efficacy of these treatments in children is limited. This article describes the current evidence-based CAM therapies for ADHD and autism, focusing on nutritional interventions; natural health products, including essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and other health supplements; biofeedback; and reducing environmental toxins. The CAM evidence in ADHD is addressed, as is the CAM literature in autism.

PMID: 18061787

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Evaluating effects of aromatherapy massage on sleep in children with autism: a pilot study.

Williams TI.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16951722

 

Abstract

Previous studies have found beneficial effects of aromatherapy massage for agitation in people with dementia, for pain relief and for poor sleep. Children with autism often have sleep difficulties, and it was thought that aromatherapy massage might enable more rapid sleep onset, less sleep disruption and longer sleep duration. Twelve children with autism and learning difficulties (2 girls and 10 boys aged between 12 years 2 months to 15 years 7 months) in a residential school participated in a within subjects repeated measures design: 3 nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage with lavender oil were compared with 14 nights when it was not given. The children were checked every 30 min throughout the night to determine the time taken for the children to settle to sleep, the number of awakenings and the sleep duration. One boy's data were not analyzed owing to lengthy absence. Repeated measures analysis revealed no differences in any of the sleep measures between the nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage and nights when the children were not given aromatherapy massage. The results suggest that the use of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with autism attending a residential school. It is possible that there are greater effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions.

PMID: 16951722

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC1513142

Free PMC Article

 

9. Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Rojas NL, Chan E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15977318

 

Source

Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Abstract

Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial food additives, colors, and/or preservatives; the effect of sugar on behavior in children; and the use of EEG biofeedback, have been well studied but lack support as effective sole treatments for ADHD. The initial evidence for some emerging CAM therapies, such as essential fatty acid supplementation, yoga, massage, homeopathy, and green outdoor spaces, suggests potential benefits as part of an overall ADHD treatment plan. More rigorously designed studies are needed to evaluate their effectiveness as single therapy for ADHD.

Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 15977318

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Complementary and alternative therapies for Down syndrome.

Roizen NJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15977315

 

Source

Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA. roizenn@ccf.org

Abstract

In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy, and a host of other therapies such as massage therapy have been used. There is a lack of well-designed scientific studies on the use of alternative therapies in individuals with Down syndrome. Antioxidants hold theoretical promise for treatment of the cognitive, immune, malignancy, and premature aging problems associated with Down syndrome. Medications for treatment of Alzheimer's disease may also result in benefit for the population of individuals with Down syndrome.

Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 15977315

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]