1. A review on the effects of aromatherapy for patients with depressive symptoms.

Yim VW, Ng AK, Tsang HW, Leung AY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216657

 

Source

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We reviewed studies from 2000 to 2008 on using essential oils for patients with depression or depressive symptoms and examined their clinical effects.

METHODS:

The review was conducted among five electronic databases to identify all peer-reviewed journal papers that tested the effects of aromatherapy in the form of therapeutic massage for patients with depressive symptoms.

RESULTS:

The results were based on six studies examining the effects of aromatherapy on depressive symptoms in patients with depression and cancer. Some studies showed positive effects of this intervention among these three groups of patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

We recommend that aromatherapy could continue to be used as a complementary and alternative therapy for patients with depression and secondary depressive symptoms arising from various types of chronic medical conditions. More controlled studies with sound methodology should be conducted in the future to ascertain its clinical effects and the underlying psychobiologic mechanisms.

PMID: 19216657

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

2. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of bipolar disorder--a review of the evidence.

Andreescu C, Mulsant BH, Emanuel JE.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18456339

 

Source

The Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research for Late-life Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA.

Abstract

A growing number of patients with mood disorders are using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. In this paper, we review the published scientific evidence on the benefits and risks of CAM for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Since very few studies of CAM have involved patients with bipolar disorder, most available evidence is derived from trials conducted in patients with major depressive disorder. The use of omega-3 fatty acids has been studied in two controlled studies in bipolar disorder while St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe), and acupuncture have been studied in a series of randomized controlled trials in patients with major depression. Overall, the best evidence supports the use of St. John's wort for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. SAMe may also be effective for depression. However, both of these products have the potential to induce mania; the extent of this risk needs to be quantified. St. John's wort can also interact with a variety of medications. Evidence regarding the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids or acupuncture is inconsistent. Data regarding other CAM interventions (e.g., aromatherapy massage, massage therapy, yoga) are almost entirely lacking. In conclusion, better studies are needed before CAM interventions can be recommended to patients with bipolar disorder. In the meantime, patients need to be informed about the possible risks associated with the use of these interventions.

PMID: 18456339

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

3. Anthroposophic therapy for chronic depression: a four-year prospective cohort study.

Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17173663

 

Source

Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Böcklerstr, 5, 79110 Freiburg, Germany. harald.hamre@ifaemm.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Depressive disorders are common, cause considerable disability, and do not always respond to standard therapy (psychotherapy, antidepressants). Anthroposophic treatment for depression differs from ordinary treatment in the use of artistic and physical therapies and special medication. We studied clinical outcomes of anthroposophic therapy for depression.

METHODS:

97 outpatients from 42 medical practices in Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were aged 20-69 years and were referred to anthroposophic therapies (art, eurythmy movement exercises, or rhythmical massage) or started physician-provided anthroposophic therapy (counselling, medication) for depression: depressed mood, at least two of six further depressive symptoms, minimum duration six months, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, German version (CES-D, range 0-60 points) of at least 24 points. Outcomes were CES-D (primary outcome) and SF-36 after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 months. Data were collected from July 1998 to March 2005.

RESULTS:

Median number of art/eurythmy/massage sessions was 14 (interquartile range 12-22), median therapy duration was 137 (91-212) days. All outcomes improved significantly between baseline and all subsequent follow-ups. Improvements from baseline to 12 months were: CES-D from mean (standard deviation) 34.77 (8.21) to 19.55 (13.12) (p < 0.001), SF-36 Mental Component Summary from 26.11 (7.98) to 39.15 (12.08) (p < 0.001), and SF-36 Physical Component Summary from 43.78 (9.46) to 48.79 (9.00) (p < 0.001). All these improvements were maintained until last follow-up. At 12-month follow-up and later, 52%-56% of evaluable patients (35%-42% of all patients) were improved by at least 50% of baseline CES-D scores. CES-D improved similarly in patients not using antidepressants or psychotherapy during the first six study months (55% of patients).

CONCLUSION:

In outpatients with chronic depression, anthroposophic therapies were followed by long-term clinical improvement. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that the anthroposophic approach, with its recourse to non-verbal and artistic exercising therapies can be useful for patients motivated for such therapies.

PMID: 17173663

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1764730

Free PMC Article

 

4. Complementary medicine for depression.

Pilkington K, Rampes H, Richardson J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17144787

 

Source

NLH CAM Specialist Library, University of Westminster, School of Integrated Health, London, UK. kpilkington@wmin.ac.uk

Abstract

Surveys have demonstrated that complementary medicine use for depression is widespread, although patterns of use vary. A series of systematic reviews provide a summary of the current evidence for acupuncture, aromatherapy and massage, homeopathy, meditation, reflexology, herbal medicine, yoga, and several dietary supplements and relaxation techniques. The quantity and quality of individual studies vary widely, but research interest in complementary therapies is increasing, particularly in herbal and nutritional products. Major questions are still to be answered with respect to the effectiveness and appropriate role of these therapies in the management of depression. Areas for further research and some of the potential challenges to research design are discussed. Finally, several ongoing developments in information provision on this topic are highlighted.

PMID: 17144787

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

5. Effectiveness of complementary and self-help treatments for depression in children and adolescents.

Jorm AF, Allen NB, O'Donnell CP, Parslow RA, Purcell R, Morgan AJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17014404

 

Source

ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ajorm@unimelb.edu.au

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review the evidence for the effectiveness of complementary and self-help treatments for depression in children and adolescents.

DATA SOURCES:

Systematic literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library for 131 treatments up to February 2006.

STUDY SELECTION:

There were 13 treatments that had been evaluated in intervention studies.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Studies on each treatment were reviewed by one author and checked by a second. A consensus was reached for level of evidence.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Relevant evidence was available for glutamine, S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, vitamin C, omega-3 fatty acids, light therapy, massage, art therapy, bibliotherapy, distraction techniques, exercise, relaxation therapy and sleep deprivation. However, the evidence was limited and generally of poor quality. The only treatment with reasonable supporting evidence was light therapy for winter depression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Given that antidepressant medication is not recommended as a first line treatment for children and adolescents with mild to moderate depression, and that the effects of psychological treatments are modest, there is a pressing need to extend the range of treatments available for this age group.

PMID: 17014404

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

6. Integrating complementary therapies into community mental health practice: an exploration.

Collinge W, Wentworth R, Sabo S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15992246

 

Source

Collinge and Associates, Kittery Point, ME 03905, USA. wcollinge@comcast.net

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To (1) describe the integration of massage and energy-based therapies with psychotherapy in a community mental health center, (2) to present qualitative feedback on the service, and (3) to present pilot data from a sample of long-term clients with persistent mental health concerns.

DESIGN:

A noncontrolled pilot study was conducted using interview data before and self-report instruments after completing a brief program of complementary therapy accompanying ongoing psychotherapy.

SETTINGS/LOCATION:

The program took place at a comprehensive community mental health center in southern Maine and in the private offices of massage therapists and energy healing practitioners who contracted with the program.

SUBJECTS:

Subjects were 20 women and 5 men, with mean age of 42 years and a mean history of 7.4 years of mental health treatment. All had histories that included trauma, 10 of which involved sexual abuse. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Axis I diagnoses were PTSD (10), major depression (nine), anxiety disorder (three), and dual diagnosis (three).

INTERVENTIONS:

Clients receiving ongoing psychotherapy were assigned to one modality of complementary therapy based on clinical judgment, availability of practitioners, and client interest. Modalities used were massage, acupuncture, Reiki, and Healing Touch. The mean number of sessions was five.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Clients completed an investigator-generated instrument with Likert-scaled ratings of satisfaction and perceived changes in four dimensions of trauma recovery: perceived interpersonal safety, interpersonal boundary setting, bodily sensation, and bodily shame.

RESULTS:

Clients reported high levels of satisfaction with the service and significant levels of perceived (self-rated) change on each outcome measure. Qualitative results included enhanced psychotherapeutic outcomes reported by mental health clinicians.

CONCLUSIONS:

The integration of complementary therapies into community mental health practice may hold promise of enhancing mental health outcomes and improving quality of life for long-term users of mental health services.

PMID: 15992246

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. The effect of aromatherapy massage on mild depression: a pilot study.

Okamoto A, Kuriyama H, Watanabe S, Aihara Y, Tadai T, Imanishi J, Fukui K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15896234

 

PMID: 15896234

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. The effect of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia.

[Article in Korean]

Lee SY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15860944

 

Source

Department of Nursing, Kongju National University, Korea. sylee601@kongju.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study was to develop an aromatherapy hand massage program, and to evaluate the effects of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

METHOD:

The Research design was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized quasiexperimental study. Lavender aromatherapy was administrated to experimental group I for 2 weeks, jojoba oil massage was administrated to experimental group II for 2 weeks, and no treatment was administrated to the control group for 2 weeks. Data was analyzed using the chi(2)-test, ANOVA, repeated measures of ANCOVA and ANCOVA in the SPSS program package.

RESULT:

1. Experimental group I did not show significant differences in cognitive function in relation to the experimental group II and control group. 2. Experimental group I showed significant differences in emotion and aggressive behavior in relation to the experimental group II and control group.

CONCLUSION:

A Lavender aromatherapy hand massage program is effective on emotions and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

PMID: 15860944

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

9. Complementary and alternative medicine use by psychiatric inpatients.

Elkins G, Rajab MH, Marcus J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825920

 

Source

Mind-Body Cancer Research Program, Scott & White Memorial Hospital and Clinic, Temple 76508, USA. gelkins@swmail.sw.org

Abstract

82 psychiatric inpatients hospitalized for acute care were interviewed about their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities. The clinical diagnoses of respondents included Depressive Disorder (61%), Substance Abuse (26%), Schizophrenia (9%), and Anxiety Disorders (5%). Analysis indicated that 63% used at least one CAM modality within the previous 12 mo. The most frequently used modality was herbal therapies (44%), followed by mind-body therapies such as relaxation or mental imagery, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback (30%), and spiritual healing by another (30%). Physical modalities such as massage, chiropractic treatment, acupuncture, and yoga were used by 21% of respondents. CAM therapies were used for a variety of reasons ranging from treatment of anxiety and depression to weight loss. However, most respondents indicated they did not discuss such use with their psychiatrist or psychotherapist.

PMID: 15825920

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Mental health visits to complementary and alternative medicine providers.

Simon GE, Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Eisenberg DM, Deyo RA, Davis RB.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15121344

 

Source

Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA. simon.g@ghc.org

Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of mental health visits to Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) providers. A representative sample of acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists, and naturopathic physicians in four states reported on 8933 consecutive visits, including demographic characteristics; presenting complaints; referral source; treatments provided; disposition; and other sources of care for the presenting problem. The proportion of visits for a mental health complaint ranged from 7% to 11% for acupuncture, massage, and naturopathic physicians to less than 1% for chiropractors. For acupuncturists, massage therapists, and naturopaths, 69-87% of patients making mental health visits were self-referred. The CAM provider discussed care with a conventional medical provider in 6-20% of cases and was aware of concomitant conventional medical care in an additional 10-30%. Only 1-5% were subsequently referred to conventional providers. For acupuncturists, massage therapists, and naturopaths, the proportion of visits for mental health concerns is similar to that in conventional primary care. Mental health visits to chiropractors are much less common, but this may reflect differences in true prevalence or differences in presentation. Among those seeking CAM care for mental disorders, concomitant treatment by conventional medical providers is common, but communication or coordination of care is rare.

PMID: 15121344

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

11. Complementary therapies as adjuncts in the treatment of postpartum depression.

Weier KM, Beal MW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15010661

 

Source

kweier@aya.yale.edu

Abstract

Postpartum depression affects an estimated 13% of women who have recently given birth. This article discusses several alternative or complementary therapies that may serve as adjuncts in the treatment of postpartum depression. The intent is to help practitioners better understand the treatments that are available that their clients may be using. Complementary modalities discussed include herbal medicine, dietary supplements, massage, aromatherapy, and acupuncture. Evidence supporting the use of these modalities is reviewed where available, and a list of resources is given in the appendix.

PMID: 15010661

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

12. Postnatal depression.

Craig M, Howard L.

Source

Health Services Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The differentiation between postnatal depression and other types of depression is often unclear, but there are treatment issues in nursing mothers that do not apply in other situations. Overall, the prevalence of depression in postpartum women is the same as the prevalence in women generally, at about 12-13%. Suicide is a major cause of maternal mortality in resource-rich countries, but rates are lower in women postpartum than in women who have not had a baby. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, and of non-drug treatments, for postnatal depression? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS:

We found 34 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: group cognitive behavioural therapy, hormones, individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), infant massage by mother, interpersonal psychotherapy, light therapy, mother-infant interaction coaching, non-directive counselling, other antidepressants, physical exercise, psychodynamic therapy, psychoeducation with partner, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), St John's Wort, telephone-based peer support.

PMID: 19445768

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2907780

Free PMC Article

 

13. Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression.

Dennis CL, Allen K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843730

 

Source

Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 1P8. cindylee.dennis@utoronto.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although pregnancy was once thought of as a time of emotional well-being for many women, conferring 'protection' against psychiatric disorders, a recent meta-analysis of 21 studies suggests the mean prevalence rate for depression across the antenatal period is 10.7%, ranging from 7.4% in the first trimester to a high of 12.8% in the second trimester. Due to maternal treatment preferences and potential concerns about fetal and infant health outcomes, non-pharmacological treatment options are needed.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects, on mothers and their families, of non-pharmacological/psychosocial/psychological interventions compared with usual antepartum care in the treatment of antenatal depression.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (August 2007), the Cochrane Collaboration Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group's Trials Registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (January 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2007), EMBASE (1980 to January 2007) and CINAHL (1982 to January 2007). We scanned secondary references and contacted experts in the field to identify other published or unpublished trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

All published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological/psychosocial/psychological interventions to treat antenatal depression.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

All review authors independently participated in the evaluation of methodological quality and data extraction. .

MAIN RESULTS:

We included one US three-armed randomised controlled trial in this review, incorporating 61 outpatient antenatal women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV criteria for major depression. Maternal massage, compared to non-specific acupuncture (control group), did not significantly decrease the number of women diagnosed with clinical depression immediately post-treatment (one trial, n = 38; risk ratio (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 2.53) or at final assessment at 10 weeks' postpartum (one trial, n = 32; RR 1.93, 95% CI 0.37 to 10.01). Acupuncture specifically treating symptoms of depression, compared to non-specific acupuncture, did not significantly decrease the number of women diagnosed with clinical depression immediately post-treatment (one trial, n = 35; RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.13) or at final assessment at 10 weeks' postpartum (one trial, n = 32; RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.06 to 6.39).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

The evidence is inconclusive to allow us to make any recommendations for massage therapy or depression-specific acupuncture for the treatment of antenatal depression. The included trial was too small with a non-generalisable sample, to make any recommendations.

PMID: 18843730

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 14. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers.

Imura M, Misao H, Ushijima H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16504900

 

Source

Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongoh, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

Abstract

This study examined the effect of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. A quasi-experimental between-groups design was used. Mothers who received aromatherapy-massage were compared with a control group who received standard postpartum care. Thirty-six healthy, first-time mothers with vaginal delivery of a full-term, healthy infant participated in this study. Sixteen mothers received a 30-minute aromatherapy-massage on the second postpartum day; 20 mothers were in the control group. All mothers completed the following four standardized questionnaires before and after the intervention: 1) Maternity Blues Scale; 2) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; 3) Profile of Mood States (POMS); and 4) Feeling toward Baby Scale. In the aromatherapy-massage group, posttreatment scores significantly decreased for the Maternity Blues Scale, the State-Anxiety Inventory, and all but one of the Profile of Mood States subscales. Posttreatment scores in the intervention group significantly increased in Profile of Mood States-Vigor subscale and the Approach Feeling toward Baby subscale. Scores in the intervention group significantly decreased in Conflict Index of Avoidance/Approach Feeling toward Baby subscale. Our results suggest that aromatherapy-massage might be an effective intervention for postpartum mothers to improve physical and mental status and to facilitate mother-infant interaction.

PMID: 16504900

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

15. Complementary therapies as adjuncts in the treatment of postpartum depression.

Weier KM, Beal MW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15010661

 

Source

kweier@aya.yale.edu

Abstract

Postpartum depression affects an estimated 13% of women who have recently given birth. This article discusses several alternative or complementary therapies that may serve as adjuncts in the treatment of postpartum depression. The intent is to help practitioners better understand the treatments that are available that their clients may be using. Complementary modalities discussed include herbal medicine, dietary supplements, massage, aromatherapy, and acupuncture. Evidence supporting the use of these modalities is reviewed where available, and a list of resources is given in the appendix.

PMID: 15010661

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]