1. Leg massage therapy promotes psychological relaxation and reinforces the first-line host defense in cancer patients.

Noto Y, Kitajima M, Kudo M, Okudera K, Hirota K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20976508

 

Source

Division of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki 036-8564, Japan.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Patients with cancer suffer a wide range of physical symptoms coupled with psychological stress. Moreover, cancer chemotherapy induces immunosuppression and consequently causes respiratory infections. Massage therapy has been reported to reduce symptoms in cancer patients via an increase in psychosocial relaxation and to enhance and/or improve immune function.

METHODS:

In the present study, we determined whether leg massage could induce psychosocial relaxation and activate the first line of the host defense system. To assess effects of rest and leg massage, 15 healthy volunteers rested on a bed for 20 min on the first day, and 3 days later the subjects received a standardized massage of the legs for 20 min with nonaromatic oil. Twenty-nine cancer patients also received the same standardized massage of the legs. Anxiety/stress was assessed before and just after the rest or the massage using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and visual analogue scale (VAS). To evaluate oral immune function, salivary chromogranin A (CgA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels were measured.

RESULTS:

In healthy volunteers, rest significantly reduced VAS by 34% and increased sIgA by 61%. In contrast, leg massage significantly reduced both STAI-s and VAS by 24% and 63%, and increased both sIgA and CgA by 104% and 90%, respectively. In cancer patients, leg massage significantly decreased both STAI-s and VAS by 16% and 38%, and increased both salivary CgA and sIgA by 33% and 35%, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Leg massage may promote psychosocial relaxation and reinforce a first-line host defense with an increase in secretion of antimicrobial peptides.

PMID: 20976508

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

2.    Depression, mood, stress, and Th1/Th2 immune balance in primary breast cancer patients undergoing classical massage therapy

Support Care Cancer. 2010 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Krohn M, Listing M, Tjahjono G, Reisshauer A, Peters E, Klapp BF, Rauchfuss M.

Source

Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, michaela.krohn@charite.de.

Abstract

Purpose

Cancer patients frequently suffer from psychological comorbidities such as depression and elevated stress. Previous studies could demonstrate that cancer patients benefit from massage therapy on the physical and psychological level. This pilot study investigates the effects of massage on depression, mood, perceived stress, and the Th1/Th2 ratio in breast cancer patients.

Methods

Thirty-four breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to a massage group (n = 17) and a control group (n = 17). Patients of the massage group received two 30-min classical massages per week for 5 weeks. At baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and 6 weeks after the end of intervention, patients of both groups completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and the Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BFS) and blood was withdrawn for determining cytokine concentrations and the Th1/Th2 ratio.

Results

Twenty-nine patients were included in the statistical analysis. Depression (PHQ) and anxious depression (BSF) were significantly reduced immediately after massage compared to the control group. Stress (PSQ) and elevated mood (BSF) did not show significant alterations after massage therapy. Changes of cytokine concentrations and Th1/Th2 ratio were insignificant as well, although there was a slight shift towards Th1 in the massage group over time.

Conclusions

Massage therapy is an efficient treatment for reducing depression in breast cancer patients. Insignificant results concerning immunological parameters, stress, and mood indicate that further research is needed to determine psychological and immunological changes under massage therapy.

PMID: 20644965

PubMed - as supplied by publisher

 

3. A randomised, controlled trial of the psychological effects of reflexology in early breast cancer.

Sharp DM, Walker MB, Chaturvedi A, Upadhyay S, Hamid A, Walker AA, Bateman JS, Braid F, Ellwood K, Hebblewhite C, Hope T, Lines M, Walker LG.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906525

 

Source

The Institute of Rehabilitation, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull, UK. d.m.sharp@hull.ac.uk

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To conduct a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effects of reflexology on quality of life (QofL) in women with early breast cancer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

One hundred and eighty-three women were randomised 6 weeks post-breast surgery to self-initiated support (SIS) (comparator intervention), SIS plus reflexology, or SIS plus scalp massage (control for physical and social contact). Reflexology and massage comprised eight sessions at weekly intervals. The primary end-point was 18 weeks post surgery; the primary outcome measure was the Trial Outcome Index (TOI) of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-B) - breast cancer version. The secondary end-point was 24 weeks post surgery. Secondary outcome measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mood Rating Scale (MRS).

RESULTS:

At primary end-point, massage, but not reflexology, was significantly better than SIS on the TOI. Reflexology and massage were both better than SIS for MRS relaxation. Massage was better than reflexology and SIS for MRS easygoingness. At secondary end-point, reflexology, but not massage, was better than SIS on the TOI and MRS relaxation. There were no significant differences between reflexology or massage. There were no significant between group differences in HADS anxiety and depression. Self-reported use of out of study complementary therapies indicated that this was unlikely to have a significant effect on findings.

CONCLUSIONS:

When compared to SIS, reflexology and massage have statistically significant, and, for reflexology, clinically worthwhile, effects on QofL following surgery for early breast carcinoma.

Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 19906525

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

4. Value of massage therapy for patients in a breast clinic.

Pruthi S, Degnim AC, Bauer BA, DePompolo RW, Nayar V.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19648098

 

Source

Division of General Internal Medicine and the Breast Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. pruthi.sandhya@mayo.edu

Abstract

This article examines interest in massage therapy and other forms of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with breast disease. Surveys were mailed to 63 patients who had a breast abnormality or a recent diagnosis of breast cancer and received complimentary massage therapy at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, from February to April 2005. Thirty-five patients responded (56% response rate). All participants felt that massage therapy was effective in helping them relax, and 34 felt that it was very or somewhat effective in reducing muscle tension. More than 75% reported that massage therapy was effective in reducing fatigue, creating a general feeling of wellness, and improving sleep quality and their ability to think clearly. Although this study was small, the findings show that massage therapy may help patients with breast disease relax and feel better overall.

PMID:

19648098

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

5. Effects of therapeutic massage on the quality of life among patients with breast cancer during treatment.

Sturgeon M, Wetta-Hall R, Hart T, Good M, Dakhil S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388859

 

Source

Integrative Therapies Inc., Wichita, KS, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Therapeutic massage has demonstrated positive physical and emotional benefits to offset the effects of treatments associated with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of therapeutic massage on the quality of life of patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer.

DESIGN:

Using a pre/post intervention assessment design, this prospective, convenience sample pilot study measured anxiety, pain, nausea, sleep quality, and quality of life. Treatment consisted of one 30-minute treatment per week for 3 consecutive weeks.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Instruments selected for this study were used in previous massage therapy studies to measure quality of life/health status and have documented validity and reliability.

RESULTS:

Participants experienced a reduction in several quality of life symptom concerns after only 3 weeks of massage therapy. Respondents' cumulative pre- and post-massage mean for state anxiety, sleep quality, and quality of life/functioning showed significant improvement. Among study participants, there was variability in reported episodes of nausea, vomiting, and retching; although participants reported decreased pain and distress, changes were non-significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

Therapeutic massage shows potential benefits for ameliorating the effects of breast cancer treatment by reducing side affects of chemotherapy and radiation and improving perceived quality of life and overall functioning.

PMID:

19388859

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

6. Providing massage therapy for people with advanced cancer: what to expect.

Smith MC, Yamashita TE, Bryant LL, Hemphill L, Kutner JS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388858

 

Source

Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA. marlaine.smith@fau.edu

Abstract

There is very little information in the literature to prepare massage therapists for what they might expect when they provide treatment to people with advanced cancer in hospice or palliative care. We report an analysis of a subset of data collected from a large multi-site clinical trial of the efficacy of massage therapy for people with advanced cancer. This is the first analysis of empirical data of patient presentation, massage treatment environment, and the characteristics of massage provided for this population.

PMID:

19388858

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. The effect of massage on immune function and stress in women with breast cancer--a randomized controlled trial.

Billhult A, Lindholm C, Gunnarsson R, Stener-Victorin E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376750

 

Source

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Physiotherapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. annika.billhult@vgregion.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the short-term effects of light pressure effleurage on circulating lymphocytes by studying the number and activity of peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells in patients with breast cancer compared to a control group. Furthermore, the effect of light pressure effleurage on salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and blood pressure was studied.

DESIGN:

Single centre, prospective, randomized and controlled study.

METHODS:

Thirty women, aged 50 to 75 years (mean 61 sd=7.2) with breast cancer undergoing radiation therapy in a hospital in southwestern Sweden were enrolled in the study. They were allocated to either receive massage in the form of a full-body light pressure effleurage treatment, or a control visit where they were given an equal amount of attention. Blood samples, saliva, notation of heart rate and blood pressure were collected before and after massage/control visit. Differences in change over time between groups were analyzed by Student's t-test.

RESULTS:

Light pressure effleurage massage decreased the deterioration of NK cell activity occurring during radiation therapy. Furthermore it lowered heart rate and systolic blood pressure. No effects were demonstrated on cortisol and diastolic pressure.

CONCLUSIONS:

A single full-body light pressure effleurage massage has a short-term effect on NK cell activity, systolic blood pressure and heart rate in patients with breast cancer. However, the long-term clinical importance of these findings needs to be further investigated.

PMID: 19376750

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Massage for Cancer Pain: A Study with University and Hospice Collaboration.

Gorman G, Forest J, Stapleton SJ, Hoenig NA, Marschke M, Durham J, Suarez ML, Wilkie DJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19337585

 

Source

Dept. of Public Health, Mental Health, and Administrative Nursing University of Illinois at Chicago.

Abstract

Conducting scientific research within a clinical practice area presents a variety of challenges. When the specialty area is hospice and palliative care, the collaborative task is particularly daunting. In this paper, we describe an ongoing study being conducted as a partnership between the University of Illinois at Chicago and a large metropolitan hospice organization. Our research is focused on engaging patients and their caregivers in a study measuring the effects of massage on cancer pain. The purpose of this paper is to describe both the lessons learned and the benefits accrued from collaboration between hospice practitioners and academic researchers. We present these process findings as guideposts for others considering end-of-life or palliative care research. Upon completion of the study in 2009, we will disseminate outcome findings in future papers.

PMID: 19337585

[PubMed]

PMCID: PMC2662729

 

9. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

Ernst E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148685

 

Source

Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter EX2 4NT, UK. Edzard.Ernst@pms.ac.uk

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Massage is a popular adjunct to cancer palliation. This systematic review is aimed at critically evaluating all available randomised clinical trials of massage in cancer palliation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Six databases were searched to identify all trials of classical massage for cancer patients. Studies of other types of massage, e.g. reflexology, aromatherapy, were excluded. Fourteen trials met all inclusion criteria.

DISCUSSION:

Collectively, they suggest that massage can alleviate a wide range of symptoms: pain, nausea, anxiety, depression, anger, stress and fatigue. However, the methodological quality of the included studies was poor, a fact that prevents definitive conclusions.

CONCLUSION:

The evidence is, therefore, encouraging but not compelling. The subject seems to warrant further investigations which avoid the limitations of previous studies.

PMID: 19148685

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy.

Haun JN, Graham-Pole J, Shortley B.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589728

 

Source

University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous research has shown positive effects from massage therapy (MT) for premature infants and for children with asthma, arthritis, and other illnesses. Although these effects have been demonstrated, MT research on children with cancer and blood disease is needed. PURPOSE AND SETTING: The present study, conducted at the Cancer Center, Shands Hospital, at the University of Florida, Gainesville, measured the physical and psychological effects of MT on pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The participants were 30 children with cancer or blood disease, ages 6 months to 17 years.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

This randomized, non-blinded prospective study used measures of physical health and mental wellbeing that were completed before, during, and after four MT sessions were implemented. Descriptive statistics, one-way between-subjects analysis of variance, and an independent-samples t-test were used to analyze the data.

INTERVENTION:

The treatment group received 20-minute sessions of Swedish MT once daily for approximately 4 days (inpatients), or once weekly for approximately 4 weeks (outpatients); the control group received no MT.

RESULTS:

Between-groups analyses indicated significant psychological improvements for the MT group on state anxiety (F(1,58) = 16.79, p < 0.000), trait anxiety (F(1,58) = 3.95, p < 0.000), and emotional state (F(1,238) = 42.39, p < 0.001)]. Between-groups analyses indicated significant physical improvements for the MT group on muscle soreness (F(1,238) = 38.96, p < 0.001), discomfort (F(1,238) = 50.16, p < 0.001), respiratory rate (F(1,237) = 22.47, p < 0.000)], and overall progress (t(28) = 25.55, p < 0.000). No significant differences were found between groups on parent-completed ratings of their child's physical or psychological health, pulse rate, or blood pressure.

CONCLUSIONS:

In children with cancer and blood diseases, MT can reduce psychological and physical distress and can have a positive effect on quality of life.

PMID: 21589728

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091462

 

11. Massage therapy for children with cancer.

Post-White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19074355

 

Source

University of Minnesota School of Nursing, 707 Kenwood Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55403, USA. postw001@umn.edu

Abstract

This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of providing massage to children with cancer to reduce symptoms in children and anxiety in parents. Twenty-three children/parent dyads were enrolled; 17 completed all data points. Children with cancer, ages 1 to 18 years, received at least 2 identical cycles of chemotherapy, and one parent, participated in the 2-period crossover design in which 4 weekly massage sessions alternated with 4 weekly quiet-time control sessions. Changes in relaxation (heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol level) and symptoms (pain, nausea, anxiety, and fatigue) were assessed in children; anxiety and fatigue were measured in parents. Massage was more effective than quiet time at reducing heart rate in children, anxiety in children less than age 14 years, and parent anxiety. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, cortisol, pain, nausea, or fatigue. Children reported that massage helped them feel better, lessened their anxiety and worries, and had longer lasting effects than quiet time. Massage in children with cancer is feasible and appears to decrease anxiety in parents and younger children.

PMID: 19074355

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

12. Effects of a full-body massage on pain intensity, anxiety, and physiological relaxation in Taiwanese patients with metastatic bone pain: a pilot study.

Jane SW, Wilkie DJ, Gallucci BB, Beaton RD, Huang HY.

Source

Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan. swjane@gw.cgit.edu.tw

Abstract

Bone involvement, a hallmark of advanced cancer, results in intolerable pain, substantial morbidity, and impaired quality of life in 34%-45% of cancer patients. Despite the publication of 15 studies on massage therapy (MT) in cancer patients, little is known about the longitudinal effects of MT and safety in cancer patients with bone metastasis. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility of MT and to examine the effects of MT on present pain intensity (PPI), anxiety, and physiological relaxation over a 16- to 18-hour period in 30 Taiwanese cancer patients with bone metastases. A quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-post-test design with repeated measures was used to examine the time effects of MT using single-item scales for pain (PPI-visual analog scale [VAS]) and anxiety (anxiety-VAS), the modified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MSF-MPQ), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). MT was shown to have effective immediate [t(29)=16.5, P=0.000; t(29)=8.9, P=0.000], short-term (20-30 minutes) [t(29)=9.3, P=0.000; t(29)=10.1, P=0.000], intermediate (1-2.5 hours) [t(29)=7.9, P=0.000; t(29)=8.9, P=0.000], and long-term benefits (16-18 hours) [t(29)=4.0, P=0.000; t(29)=5.7, P=0.000] on PPI and anxiety. The most significant impact occurred 15 [F=11.5(1,29), P<0.002] or 20 [F=20.4(1,29), P<0.000] minutes after the intervention. There were no significant time effects in decreasing or increasing HR and MAP. No patient reported any adverse effects as a result of MT. Clinically, the time effects of MT can assist health care providers in implementing MT along with pharmacological treatment, thereby enhancing cancer pain management. Randomized clinical trials are needed to validate the effectiveness of MT in this cancer population.

PMID: 19070458

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

13. Systematic review of massage intervention for adult patients with cancer: a methodological perspective.

Jane SW, Wilkie DJ, Gallucci BB, Beaton RD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987505

 

Source

Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Institute of Technology and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. swjane@gw.cgit.edu.tw

Abstract

Findings from studies of massage, one of the most commonly used nonpharmacological nursing interventions for managing cancer pain, are inconsistent. The purpose of this article was to elucidate the methodological underpinnings of these inconsistencies with a systematic review of study design, methods, and massage efficacy in adult patients with cancer. A total of 15 studies published in English between 1986 and 2006 were identified by searching in 6 electronic databases. An author-developed tool and an adapted assessment tool were used to extract information from each study and examine the quality of reviewed studies. Methodological issues that potentially account for discrepancies across studies included less rigorous inclusion criteria, failure to consider potential confounding variables, less than rigorous research designs, inconsistent massage doses and protocols, measurement errors related to sensitivity of instruments and timing of measurements, and inadequate statistical power. Areas for future study include determination of appropriate cutoff values of selected outcome measures, delivery of equal doses along with standardized massage protocols, examination of length of massage effects over time, and use of single-blinding randomized clinical trials with large sample sizes.

PMID: 18987505

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

14. Massage therapy versus simple touch to improve pain and mood in patients with advanced cancer: a randomized trial.

Kutner JS, Smith MC, Corbin L, Hemphill L, Benton K, Mellis BK, Beaty B, Felton S, Yamashita TE, Bryant LL, Fairclough DL.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18794556

 

Source

School of Medicine, College of Nursing, University of Colorado Denver, Denver and Aurora, Colorado, USA. jean.kutner@ucdenver.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Small studies of variable quality suggest that massage therapy may relieve pain and other symptoms.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the efficacy of massage for decreasing pain and symptom distress and improving quality of life among persons with advanced cancer.

DESIGN:

Multisite, randomized clinical trial.

SETTING:

Population-based Palliative Care Research Network.

PATIENTS:

380 adults with advanced cancer who were experiencing moderate-to-severe pain; 90% were enrolled in hospice.

INTERVENTION:

Six 30-minute massage or simple-touch sessions over 2 weeks.

MEASUREMENTS:

Primary outcomes were immediate (Memorial Pain Assessment Card, 0- to 10-point scale) and sustained (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI], 0- to 10-point scale) change in pain. Secondary outcomes were immediate change in mood (Memorial Pain Assessment Card) and 60-second heart and respiratory rates and sustained change in quality of life (McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, 0- to 10-point scale), symptom distress (Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, 0- to 4-point scale), and analgesic medication use (parenteral morphine equivalents [mg/d]). Immediate outcomes were obtained just before and after each treatment session. Sustained outcomes were obtained at baseline and weekly for 3 weeks.

RESULTS:

298 persons were included in the immediate outcome analysis and 348 in the sustained outcome analysis. A total of 82 persons did not receive any allocated study treatments (37 massage patients, 45 control participants). Both groups demonstrated immediate improvement in pain (massage, -1.87 points [95% CI, -2.07 to -1.67 points]; control, -0.97 point [CI, -1.18 to -0.76 points]) and mood (massage, 1.58 points [CI, 1.40 to 1.76 points]; control, 0.97 point [CI, 0.78 to 1.16 points]). Massage was superior for both immediate pain and mood (mean difference, 0.90 and 0.61 points, respectively; P < 0.001). No between-group mean differences occurred over time in sustained pain (BPI mean pain, 0.07 point [CI, -0.23 to 0.37 points]; BPI worst pain, -0.14 point [CI, -0.59 to 0.31 points]), quality of life (McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire overall, 0.08 point [CI, -0.37 to 0.53 points]), symptom distress (Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale global distress index, -0.002 point [CI, -0.12 to 0.12 points]), or analgesic medication use (parenteral morphine equivalents, -0.10 mg/d [CI, -0.25 to 0.05 mg/d]).

LIMITATIONS:

The immediate outcome measures were obtained by unblinded study therapists, possibly leading to reporting bias and the overestimation of a beneficial effect. The generalizability to all patients with advanced cancer is uncertain. The differential beneficial effect of massage therapy over simple touch is not conclusive without a usual care control group.

CONCLUSION:

Massage may have immediately beneficial effects on pain and mood among patients with advanced cancer. Given the lack of sustained effects and the observed improvements in both study groups, the potential benefits of attention and simple touch should also be considered in this patient population.

Summary for patients in

PMID: 18794556

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2631433

Free PMC Article

 

15. Reflexology for symptom relief in patients with cancer.

Wilkinson S, Lockhart K, Gambles M, Storey L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18772659

 

Source

Department of Mental Health Sciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, The Hampstead Campus, London, England.

Abstract

Complementary therapies are increasingly being used in hospices and hospitals alongside orthodox treatments in an attempt to improve patients' emotional, spiritual, psychological, and physical well-being. An average of 31% of UK patients with cancer use some form of complementary therapy. Many UK cancer centers, out-patient units, and hospices are providing complementary services. There is strong anecdotal evidence that complementary therapies assist in the palliation of physical and psychological symptoms. This systematic review examines the research evidence base for the effectiveness of reflexology in cancer care. The study reports the results of a systematic review following the Cochrane principles of systematic reviewing. No meta-analysis was possible. Studies were retrieved from a comprehensive search of electronic databases from their start dates. An initial search was carried out in 2003 and updated in 2005 to 2006. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies. Participants were adults with a diagnosis of cancer, receiving care in any healthcare setting. Interventions were limited to reflexology carried out by a qualified therapist as distinguished from another healthcare professional carrying out a reflexology intervention. Outcome measures were patient-reported levels of physical and psychological indices of symptom distress and quality of life (measured using validated assessment tools).

PMID: 18772659

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

16. Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.

[Article in Korean]

Chang SY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18753801

 

Source

Department of Nursing, Keimyung University, Jung-gu, Daegu, Korea. so726@kmu.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.

METHODS:

This study was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were 58 hospice patients with terminal cancer who were hospitalized. Twenty eight hospice patients with terminal cancer were assigned to the experimental group (aroma hand massage), and 30 hospice patients with terminal cancer were assigned to the control group (general oil hand massage). As for the experimental treatment, the experimental group went through aroma hand massage on each hand for 5 min for 7 days with blended oil-a mixture of Bergamot, Lavender, and Frankincense in the ratio of 1:1:1, which was diluted 1.5% with sweet almond carrier oil 50 ml. The control group went through general oil hand massage by only sweet almond carrier oil-on each hand for 5 min for 7 days.

RESULTS:

The aroma hand massage experimental group showed more significant differences in the changes of pain score (t=-3.52, p=.001) and depression (t=-8.99, p=.000) than the control group.

CONCLUSION:

Aroma hand massage had a positive effect on pain and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer.

PMID: 18753801

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

17. Massage for symptom relief in patients with cancer: systematic review.

Wilkinson S, Barnes K, Storey L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18727744

 

Source

Department of Mental Health Sciences, Royal Free & University College Medical School, London, UK. susie.wilkinson@medsch.ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

AIM:

This paper is a report of a review to assess evidence of the effectiveness of massage for patients with cancer, in terms of reducing physical or psychological symptoms, improving quality of life, or producing unwanted side effects.

BACKGROUND:

Patients with cancer may use complementary therapies, including massage and aromatherapy massage. However, their use and provision by state-financed healthcare services is controversial.

DATA SOURCES:

A systematic review was carried out, using the Cochrane principles. No meta-analysis was appropriate. An initial comprehensive search of electronic databases search was carried out in 2003 and updated in 2006. Eligible trials were randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre-post) studies and interrupted time-series studies. Participants were adults with a diagnosis of cancer and receiving care in any healthcare setting. Interventions were limited to massage and/or aromatherapy massage carried out by a qualified therapist. Outcome measures to be included were patient-reported levels of physical and psychological indices of symptom distress and quality of life (measured using validated assessment tools).

FINDINGS:

In the review, 1325 papers were considered. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and their results suggest that massage might reduce anxiety in patients with cancer in the short term and may have a beneficial effect on physical symptoms of cancer, such as pain and nausea. However, the lack of rigorous research evidence precludes drawing definitive conclusions.

CONCLUSION:

Further well-designed large trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of massage for cancer patients.

PMID: 18727744

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

18. The value of massage therapy in cancer care.

Myers CD, Walton T, Small BJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18638693

 

Source

Integrative Medicine, Health Outcomes and Behavior Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, MRC-PSY, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. cynthia.myers@moffitt.org

Abstract

Massage therapy is increasingly available as a supportive therapy to patients in medical centers providing cancer treatment. This article provides an overview of the evidence base relevant to the use of massage with the intended goal of alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by cancer patients. Collectively, the available data support the view that massage, modified appropriately, offers potential beneficial effects for cancer patients in terms of reducing anxiety and pain and other symptoms. Replication of preliminary studies with larger, more homogeneous patient samples and rigorous study designs will help to clarify which massage modalities have the most potential benefit for which patients before, during, and after specific types of cancer treatment.

PMID: 18638693

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

19. The effect of massage on cellular immunity, endocrine and psychological factors in women with breast cancer -- a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Billhult A, Lindholm C, Gunnarsson R, Stener-Victorin E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18474451

 

Source

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Physiotherapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. annika.billhult@vgregion.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of repeated effleurage massage treatments compared with a visit control group on circulating lymphocytes by studying the number and activity of peripheral blood NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in women with breast cancer. Furthermore, the effect of repeated effleurage massage treatments on the levels of cortisol in saliva and oxytocin in plasma as well as degree anxiety, depression and quality of life was studied.

DESIGN:

A single centre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

SETTINGS/LOCATION:

The study was conducted in a radiation department, in a hospital in south-western Sweden.

SUBJECTS:

Twenty-two women (mean age=62) with breast cancer undergoing radiation were included in this study.

INTERVENTIONS:

The patients were randomly assigned to effleurage massage therapy (20 min of effleurage on ten occasions) or to control visits (ten 20-minute visits).

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Blood samples were collected before the first and last massage/control visit for analysis of peripheral blood NK, T cells and oxytocin. Saliva was analysed for cortisol. In addition, the patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Spielbergers State Trait Anxiety Inventory prior to the first and last massage/control visit.

RESULTS:

Effleurage massage treatment had no significant effect on the number, frequencies or activation state of NK cells or CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, no significant changes between groups were detected on cortisol and oxytocin concentrations, anxiety, depression or quality of life.

CONCLUSIONS:

Significant effect of effleurage massage on cellular immunity, cortisol, oxytocin, anxiety, depression or quality of life could not be demonstrated in this study. Several possible explanations to the results of this study are discussed.

PMID: 18474451

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

20. Massage therapy as a supportive care intervention for children with cancer.

Hughes D, Ladas E, Rooney D, Kelly K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18467292

 

Source

Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York Presbyterian, New York, USA. dh493@columbia.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES:

To review relevant literature about massage therapy to assess the feasibility of integrating the body-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice as a supportive care intervention for children with cancer.

DATA SOURCES:

PubMed, online references, published government reports, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles, reviews, and books on massage and massage and cancer. More than 70 citations were reviewed.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Massage therapy may help mitigate pain, anxiety, depression, constipation, and high blood pressure and may be beneficial during periods of profound immune suppression. Massage techniques light to medium in pressure are appropriate in the pediatric oncology setting.

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage is an applicable, noninvasive, therapeutic modality that can be integrated safely as an adjunct intervention for managing side effects and psychological conditions associated with anticancer treatment in children. Massage may support immune function during periods of immunosuppression.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING:

Pediatric oncology nurses are vital in helping patients safely integrate CAM into conventional treatment. Pediatric oncology nurses can help maximize patient outcomes by assessing, advocating, and coordinating massage therapy services as a supportive care intervention.

PMID: 18467292

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

21. A hospital-based intervention using massage to reduce distress among oncology patients.

Currin J, Meister EA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18453878

 

Source

Supportive Services, Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute, Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA 31403, USA. CurriJe1@memorialhealth.com

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a Swedish massage intervention on oncology patients' perceived level of distress. Each patient's distress level was measured using 4 distinct dimensions: pain, physical discomfort, emotional discomfort, and fatigue. A total of 251 oncology patients volunteered to participate in this nonrandomized single-group pre- and post design study for over a 3-year period at a university hospital setting in southeastern Georgia. The analysis found a statistically significant reduction in patient-reported distress for all 4 measures: pain (F = 638.208, P = .000), physical discomfort (F = 742.575, P = .000), emotional discomfort (F = 512.000, P = .000), and fatigue (F = 597.976, P = .000). This reduction in patient distress was observed regardless of gender, age, ethnicity, or cancer type. These results lend support for the inclusion of a complementary massage therapy program for hospitalized oncology patients as a means of enhancing their course of treatment.

PMID: 18453878

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

22. Chair massage for patients and carers: a pilot service in an outpatient setting of a cancer care hospital.

Mackereth P, Campbell G, Maycock P, Hennings J, Breckons M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18396258

 

Source

Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Rehabilitation Unit, Wilmslow, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. Peter.Mackereth@christie.nhs.uk

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To gather patient and carer evaluations of a 20 min chair massage treatment provided one afternoon a week in an outpatient waiting area.

METHOD:

Information gathered over a year included documented evaluation of chair massage, pre- and post-treatment well-being scores (visual analogue scale).

RESULTS:

Both patients (n=224) and carers (n=185) positively evaluated the treatment. Key benefits reported included: relaxation, comfort, time out/treat, distraction, and relief of anxiety. There were significant changes in self-reported well-being score (p=<0.001), but no significant changes between scores for males and females. The changes in well-being scores on occasions (n=3) did not match the positive feedback.

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings suggest that the service was appreciated by patients and carers. The project was continued for a further year with internal funding. Further research is warranted to ascertain the added and longer-term value of this intervention.

PMID: 18396258

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

23. Role of massage therapy in cancer care.

Russell NC, Sumler SS, Beinhorn CM, Frenkel MA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18315504

 

Source

Integrative Medicine Program, Unit 145, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

The care of patients with cancer not only involves dealing with its symptoms but also with complicated information and uncertainty; isolation; and fear of disease progression, disease recurrence, and death. Patients whose treatments require them to go without human contact can find a lack of touch to be an especially distressing factor. Massage therapy is often used to address these patients' need for human contact, and findings support the positive value of massage in cancer care. Several reviews of the scientific literature have attributed numerous positive effects to massage, including improvements in the quality of patients' relaxation, sleep, and immune system responses and in the relief of their fatigue, pain, anxiety, and nausea. On the basis of these reviews, some large cancer centers in the United States have started to integrate massage therapy into conventional settings. In this paper, we recognize the importance of touch, review findings regarding massage for cancer patients, describe the massage therapy program in one of these centers, and outline future challenges and implications for the effective integration of massage therapy in large and small cancer centers.

PMID: 18315504

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  

24. The role of massage therapy in the relief of cancer pain.

Liu Y, Fawcett TN.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18300657

 

Source

Nursing Studies, School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Abstract

Massage is increasingly being considered as a means of relieving the pain many cancer patients experience. This article aims to investigate current evidence relating to the safety and effectiveness of using massage to help treat this group of patients.

PMID: 18300657

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

25. Massage in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy reduces serum cortisol and prolactin.

Stringer J, Swindell R, Dennis M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18300336

 

Source

Haematology and Transplant Unit, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. jacqui.stringer@christie.nhs.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective is to identify whether single 20 min massage sessions were safe and effective in reducing stress levels of isolated haematological oncology patients.

DESIGN:

Based on a randomised controlled trial, 39 patients were randomised to aromatherapy, massage or rest (control) arm.

MEASURES:

The measures were serum cortisol and prolactin levels, quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcome measure was the fall in serum cortisol levels.

RESULTS:

A significant difference was seen between arms in cortisol (P=0.002) and prolactin (p=0.031) levels from baseline to 30 min post-session. Aromatherapy and massage arms showed a significantly greater drop in cortisol than the rest arm. Only the massage arm had a significantly greater reduction in prolactin then the rest arm. The EORTC QLQ-C30 showed a significant reduction in 'need for rest' for patients in both experimental arms compared with the control arm, whereas the semi-structured interviews identified a universal feeling of relaxation in patients in the experimental arms.

CONCLUSION:

This pilot study demonstrated that in isolated haematological oncology patients, a significant reduction in cortisol could be safely achieved through massage, with associated improvement in psychological well-being. The implications are discussed.

Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 18300336

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

26. Training massage therapists to work in oncology.

Miner W.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087760

 

Source

Integrative Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Abstract

Professional massage therapists (MTs) require specialized training to work safely and effectively with cancer patients and to prepare them for their role in multidisciplinary clinical settings. This article describes "Medical Massage for the Cancer Patient," a certificate course offered to achieve those goals by the Integrative Medicine Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. MTs are taught the clinical, logistic, and legal requirements; the basic details of cancer and cancer treatments; necessary massage adaptations; and what will be required of them as members of a health care team. The core competencies this training program aims to impart, and the program developed to reach them, are outlined here. Specific training by a credible oncology team is required prior to any hands-on work with cancer patients.

PMID: 19087760

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

27. Couples and cancer: feasibility of brief instruction in massage and touch therapy to build caregiver efficacy.

Collinge W, Kahn J, Yarnold P, Bauer-Wu S, McCorkle R.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087758

 

Source

Collinge and Associates, Kittery, ME, USA. william@collinge.org

Abstract

This study examined the feasibility of brief instruction in massage and touch therapy for caregivers ("partners") to provide comfort to cancer patients. Fifty partners and 49 patients participated. A longitudinal, within-subjects, repeated measures, control and intervention phases design used self-report instruments to assess feasibility via change in frequency, duration, partner-perceived self-efficacy, and patient-perceived helpfulness over a 90-day follow-up. Exploratory data were collected on psychosocial and quality of life variables. Focus groups provided qualitative data. A structured 6-hour workshop taught basic manual techniques for comfort and relaxation, followed by home practice. Significant increases in frequency (1.2 vs 2.7 times per week) and duration (4.7 vs 12.2 minutes) of massage, both p < .001, were sustained through the 3-month follow-up. Partners' perceived self-efficacy in massage and patients' ratings of its helpfulness more than doubled. Classification tree analysis found caregiver burden, relationship quality, and frequency and duration of practice to predict individual responses. Inhibitions about touch in cancer caregiving may lead to unnecessary physical and emotional distancing at a time when patients need touch the most. Brief instruction may be a feasible intervention to increase caregiver efficacy, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and quality of the relationship.

PMID: 19087758

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

28. Developing treatment and control conditions in a clinical trial of massage therapy for advanced cancer.

Smith M, Kutner J, Hemphill L, Yamashita T, Felton S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087757

 

Source

Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges faced by a research team in developing treatment and control conditions in a study of the efficacy of massage therapy for advanced cancer. Five design considerations were addressed related to developing a massage therapy protocol: (1) dosage, that is, the number, spacing and length of treatments; (2) type of massage therapy; (3) degree to which the protocol for the treatment is standardized; (4) qualifications of the persons providing the treatment; and (5) conditions under which the treatment is provided. Five criteria for structuring the control condition of the study are elaborated: (1) equivalency of contact; (2) similarity of form; (3) minimum adverse or negative effects; (4) expectancy of therapeutic benefit; and (5) minimum therapeutic benefit.

PMID: 19087757

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

29. Impact of massage therapy on anxiety levels in patients undergoing radiation therapy: randomized controlled trial.

Campeau MP, Gaboriault R, Drapeau M, Van Nguyen T, Roy I, Fortin B, Marois M, Nguyen-Tân PF.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087756

 

Source

Department of Radiation Oncology, CHUM Notre-Dame Hospital, Montreal, QC.

Abstract

Anxiety is a major issue in the cancer patient population. This randomized phase III trial evaluated the effects of massage therapy on anxiety levels in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Patients undergoing radiation therapy were randomly assigned to either 10 massage sessions or control sessions. Anxiety levels were evaluated throughout the course of treatment using both the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The immediate effect of massage therapy on anxiety scores was measured via pre- and postmassage VAS scores. The intermediate-term effect of massage was assessed through the VAS scores over the 10 sessions and STAI scores at the last session. The trial's primary outcome was the difference in intermediate-term anxiety scores, whereas the secondary outcome was the difference in immediate anxiety scores. Between January 2006 and June 2006, 100 patients were randomized. After their massage, the patients' immediate postmassage anxiety score according to the VAS was reduced by an average of 45% compared with their premassage score (p < .001). No impact of massage therapy on intermediate-term anxiety scores was observed. Both groups showed a similar decline in VAS anxiety scores from the first to the last session, that is, 15% and 19% in the massage therapy and control groups, respectively (p = .73). Furthermore, no difference was observed between the groups' respective state-anxiety scores after the 10 sessions. Massage therapy is associated with a significant, immediate decrease in anxiety scores. However, massage therapy appears to have no major impact on intermediate-term anxiety in patients undergoing radiation therapy.

PMID: 19087756

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

30. Massage therapy for cancer patients: a reciprocal relationship between body and mind.

Sagar SM, Dryden T, Wong RK.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17576465

 

Source

Juravinski Cancer Program, Hamilton Health Sciences Corporation and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. stephen.sagar@hrcc.on.ca

Abstract

Some cancer patients use therapeutic massage to reduce symptoms, improve coping, and enhance quality of life. Although a meta-analysis concludes that massage can confer short-term benefits in terms of psychological wellbeing and reduction of some symptoms, additional validated randomized controlled studies are necessary to determine specific indications for various types of therapeutic massage. In addition, mechanistic studies need to be conducted to discriminate the relative contributions of the therapist and of the reciprocal relationship between body and mind in the subject. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to capture dynamic in vivo responses to biomechanical signals induced by massage of myofascial tissue. The relationship of myofascial communication systems (called "meridians") to activity in the subcortical central nervous system can be evaluated. Understanding this relationship has important implications for symptom control in cancer patients, because it opens up new research avenues that link self-reported pain with the subjective quality of suffering. The reciprocal body-mind relationship is an important target for manipulation therapies that can reduce suffering.

PMID: 17576465

[PubMed]

PMCID: PMC1891200

Free PMC Article

 

31. Feasibility of a reflexology and guided imagery intervention during chemotherapy: results of a quasi-experimental study.

Wyatt G, Sikorskii A, Siddiqi A, Given CW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17573322

 

Source

The College of Nursing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. gwyatt@msu.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate patient characteristics to predict selection and maintenance of a complementary therapy and the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of complementary therapies.

DESIGN:

Quasi-experimental, exploratory study, unblinded and nonrandomized.

SETTING:

A comprehensive cancer center in Michigan.

SAMPLE:

96 patients undergoing chemotherapy, predominantly Caucasian women.

METHODS:

Consenting patients with caregivers could choose a reflexology, guided imagery, guided imagery plus reflexology, or interview-only group. Patients without caregivers were restricted to guided imagery or interview-only groups. Data on demographics, depression, anxiety, and functional status were collected using established instruments.

MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES:

Quality of life (QOL) and patient characteristics in relation to complementary therapy choice.

FINDINGS:

Patients who chose a complementary therapy rather than an interview only tended to be older and in worse health and had higher percentages of lung cancer, late-stage cancers, higher anxiety, depressive symptoms, and physical limitations at baseline. Patients lost from the guided imagery and guided imagery plus reflexology groups had greater symptom severity, depressive symptoms and anxiety, and worse physical and emotional well-being than those lost from the reflexology group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patient characteristics influence choice of complementary therapies, highlighting the need for RCTs to evaluate the true effect of complementary therapies on the QOL of patients with cancer. Further research on complementary therapies can help healthcare providers identify patients who are likely to benefit most by addressing nursing-sensitive outcomes.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING:

An RCT of reflexology as a single therapy for females with breast cancer is most feasible compared to other complementary therapies.

PMID: 17573322

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

32. Partner-delivered reflexology: effects on cancer pain and anxiety.

Stephenson NL, Swanson M, Dalton J, Keefe FJ, Engelke M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17562639

 

Source

School of Nursing, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA. stephensonn@mail.ecu.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES:

To compare the effects of partner-delivered foot reflexology and usual care plus attention on patients' perceived pain and anxiety.

DESIGN:

The experimental pretest/post-test design included patient-partner dyads randomly assigned to an experimental or control group.

SETTING:

Four hospitals in the southeastern United States.

SAMPLE:

42 experimental and 44 control subjects comprised 86 dyads of patients with metastatic cancer and their partners, representing 16 different types of cancer; 23% of patients had lung cancer, followed by breast, colorectal, and head and neck cancer and lymphoma. The subjects had a mean age of 58.3 years, 51% were female, 66% had a high school education or less, and 58% were Caucasian, 40% were African American, and 1% were Filipino.

METHODS:

The intervention included a 15- to 30-minute teaching session on foot reflexology to the partner by a certified reflexologist, an optional 15- to 30-minute foot reflexology session for the partner, and a 30-minute, partner-delivered foot reflexology intervention for the patient. The control group received a 30-minute reading session from their partners.

MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES:

Pain and anxiety.

FINDINGS:

Following the initial partner-delivered foot reflexology, patients experienced a significant decrease in pain intensity and anxiety.

CONCLUSIONS:

A nurse reflexologist taught partners how to perform reflexology on patients with metastatic cancer pain in the hospital, resulting in an immediate decrease in pain intensity and anxiety; minimal changes were seen in the control group, who received usual care plus attention.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING:

Hospitals could have qualified professionals offer reflexology as a complementary therapy and teach interested partners the modality.

PMID: 17562639

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

33. The experience of massage during chemotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients.

Billhult A, Stener-Victorin E, Bergbom I.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17452429

 

Source

Department of Physiotherapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Abstract

This study aimed to describe the experience of massage for breast cancer patients during chemotherapy treatment. Ten patients received massage at five occasions. They were interviewed and analysis was conducted using Giorgi's ideas of phenomenological research. The essential meaning of getting massage during chemotherapy was described as a retreat from the feeling of uneasiness toward chemotherapy. Results revealed five themes: the patients experienced distraction from the frightening experience, a turn from negative to positive, a sense of relaxation, a confirmation of caring, and finally they just felt good. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that massage offered a retreat from uneasy, unwanted, negative feelings connected with chemotherapy treatment. It is a treatment that can be added to the arsenal of treatment choices available to the oncological staff.

PMID: 17452429

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

34. Massage therapy for cancer pain.

Calenda E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16834941

 

Source

Boulder College of Massage Therapy, 6255 Longbow Drive,Boulder, CO 80301, USA. ecalenda@bcmt.org

Abstract

Therapeutic massage as a cancer pain intervention appears to be safe and effective. Patients who receive massage have less procedural pain, nausea, and anxiety and report improved quality of life. The use of massage in cancer care centers and hospitals is on the rise. Massage has a positive effect on biochemistry, increasing levels of dopamine, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Specialized training of massage therapists in caring for people with cancer is recommended. Most studies to date are small but promising. Exact methodology and best practices warrant further investigation by the industry. More randomized clinical trials and case studies must be conducted.

PMID: 16834941

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

35. Effects of educational program of manual lymph massage on the arm functioning and the quality of life in breast cancer patients.

[Article in Korean]

Lee ES, Kim SH, Kim SM, Sun JJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16418566

 

Source

College of Nursing, Chonnam National University, Chonnam Research Institute of Nursing Science, Gwangju, Korea . eslee@chonnam.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EPMLM (educational program of manual lymph massage) on the arm functioning and QOL (quality of life) in breast cancer patients with lymphedema.

METHOD:

Subjects in the experimental group (n=20) participated in EPMLM for 6 weeks from June to July, 2005. The EPMLM consisted of training of lymph massage for 2 weeks and encourage and support of self-care using lymph massage for 4 weeks. The arm functioning assessed at pre-treatment, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks using Arm functioning questionnaire. The QOL assessed at pre-treatment and 6 weeks using SF-36. The outcome data of experimental group was compared with control group (n=20). The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS 10.0 statistical program.

RESULT:

The arm functioning of experimental group was increased from 2 weeks after (W=.224, p=.011) and statistically differenced with control group at 2 weeks (Z=-2.241, p=.024) and 6 weeks (Z=-2.453, p=.013). Physical function of QOL domain increased in experimental group (Z=-1.162, p=.050), also statistically differenced with control group (Z=-2.182, p= .030) at 6 weeks.

CONCLUSION:

The results suggest that the educational program of manual lymph massage can improve arm functioning and physical function of QOL domain in breast cancer patients with lymphedema.

PMID: 16418566

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

36. Understanding bodywork for the patient with cancer.

Coe AB, Anthony ML.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16381550

 

Source

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia. abcoern@juno.com

Abstract

The goal of this article is to increase oncology nurses' understanding of common bodywork modalities and the current research about them in the oncology setting. Bodywork is a broad term that incorporates massage and energy modalities. Eleven modalities are described. In addition, issues related to safety, licensure, making referrals, and nurses' and bodyworkers' roles are discussed. Better knowledge will increase oncology nurses' abilities to assess and guide patients' bodywork choices and facilitate discussions with patients, physicians, and bodyworkers to ensure that patients with cancer are receiving safe and effective care.

PMID: 16381550

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

37. Does breast massage push tumor cells into sentinel nodes?

Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Sep;29(9):1254-5; author reply 1255-6.

Turner RR, Giuliano AE.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16096419

 

Comment on

PMID: 16096419

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

38. Safety and efficacy of massage therapy for patients with cancer.

Corbin L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16062163

 

Source

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, The Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora 80045, USA. lisa.corbin@uchsc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

As the popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) grows, patients are incorporating more CAM therapies into their conventional cancer care. Massage therapy, a CAM therapy known primarily for its use in relaxation, may also benefit patients with cancer in other ways. Massage can also be associated with risks in the oncology population. Risks can be minimized and benefits maximized when the clinician feels comfortable discussing CAM with his or her patients. This article reviews and summarizes the literature on massage and cancer to help provide the clinician with information to help facilitate discussions with patients.

METHODS:

MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant articles. These were reviewed for content and other pertinent references.

RESULTS:

Significant information was extracted from these resources to provide this overview of the use of massage for patients with cancer.

CONCLUSIONS:

Conventional care for patients with cancer can safely incorporate massage therapy, although cancer patients may be at higher risk of rare adverse events. The strongest evidence for benefits of massage is for stress and anxiety reduction, although research for pain control and management of other symptoms common to patients with cancer, including pain, is promising. The oncologist should feel comfortable discussing massage therapy with patients and be able to refer patients to a qualified massage therapist as appropriate.

PMID: 16062163

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

39. Natural killer cells and lymphocytes increase in women with breast cancer following massage therapy.

Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Ironson G, Beutler J, Vera Y, Hurley J, Fletcher MA, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, Fraser M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15809216

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. mhernan4@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Women diagnosed with breast cancer received massage therapy or practiced progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for 30-min sessions 3 times a week for 5 weeks or received standard treatment. The massage therapy and relaxation groups reported less depressed mood, anxiety, and pain immediately after their first and last sessions. By the end of the study, however, only the massage therapy group reported being less depressed and less angry and having more vigor. Dopamine levels, Natural Killer cells, and lymphocytes also increased from the first to the last day of the study for the massage therapy group. These findings highlight the benefit of these complementary therapies, most particularly massage therapy, for women with breast cancer.

PMID: 15809216

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

40. The effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

[Article in Korean]

Yang JH.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778569

 

Source

Department of Nursing, Inje University, Pusan, Korea. jhyang@inje.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

METHOD:

The research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent pre-post design and was conducted from Jan. 26, to Mar. 20, 2004. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with 18 in the experimental group and 16 in control group. A pretest and 2 posttests were conducted to measure nausea, vomiting and fatigue. For the experimental group, foot reflexology, which was consisted of 4 phases for 40 minutes, was given by a researcher and 4 research assistants. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN 10.0 program.

RESULTS:

There was a statistically significant decrease in nausea, and vomiting in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. In addition, there was a statistically significant decrease in fatigue in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times.

CONCLUSION:

Foot reflexology was effective on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in this study. Therefore, foot reflexology can be usefully utilized as a nursing intervention in the field of cancer nursing for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

PMID: 15778569

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

41. Aroma therapy and massage for relieving symptoms of cancer patients.

[Article in Finnish]

Pasternack I.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15656427

 

Source

Stakes/FinOHTA, Lintulahdenkuja 5, 00530 Helsinki. iris.pasternack@stakes.fi

PMID: 15656427

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

42. Massage therapy for symptom control: outcome study at a major cancer center.

Cassileth BR, Vickers AJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15336336

 

Source

Integrative Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

Abstract

Massage is increasingly applied to relieve symptoms in patients with cancer. This practice is supported by evidence from small randomized trials. No study has examined massage therapy outcome in a large group of patients. At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, patients report symptom severity pre- and post-massage therapy using 0-10 rating scales of pain, fatigue, stress/anxiety, nausea, depression and "other." Changes in symptom scores and the modifying effects of patient status (in- or outpatient) and type of massage were analyzed. Over a three-year period, 1,290 patients were treated. Symptom scores were reduced by approximately 50%, even for patients reporting high baseline scores. Outpatients improved about 10% more than inpatients. Benefits persisted, with outpatients experiencing no return toward baseline scores throughout the duration of 48-hour follow-up. These data indicate that massage therapy is associated with substantive improvement in cancer patients' symptom scores.

PMID: 15336336

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

43. Breast cancer patients have improved immune and neuroendocrine functions following massage therapy.

Hernandez-Reif M, Ironson G, Field T, Hurley J, Katz G, Diego M, Weiss S, Fletcher MA, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, Burman I.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15256294

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1601 NW 12th Avenue, Room 7037, Miami, FL 33136, USA. mhernan4@med.miami.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Women with breast cancer are at risk for elevated depression, anxiety, and decreased natural killer (NK) cell number. Stress has been linked to increased tumor development by decreasing NK cell activity. The objectives of this study included examining massage therapy for women with breast cancer for (1) improving mood and biological measures associated with mood enhancement (serotonin, dopamine), (2) reducing stress and stress hormone levels, and (3) boosting immune measures.

METHODS:

Thirty-four women (M age=53) diagnosed with Stage 1 or 2 breast cancer were randomly assigned postsurgery to a massage therapy group (to receive 30-min massages three times per week for 5 weeks) or a control group. The massage consisted of stroking, squeezing, and stretching techniques to the head, arms, legs/feet, and back. On the first and last day of the study, the women were assessed on (1) immediate effects measures of anxiety, depressed mood, and vigor and (2) longer term effects on depression, anxiety and hostility, functioning, body image, and avoidant versus intrusive coping style, in addition to urinary catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) and serotonin levels. A subset of 27 women (n=15 massage) had blood drawn to assay immune measures.

RESULTS:

The immediate massage therapy effects included reduced anxiety, depressed mood, and anger. The longer term massage effects included reduced depression and hostility and increased urinary dopamine, serotonin values, NK cell number, and lymphocytes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Women with Stage 1 and 2 breast cancer may benefit from thrice-weekly massage therapy for reducing depressed mood, anxiety, and anger and for enhancing dopamine, serotonin, and NK cell number and lymphocytes.

PMID: 15256294

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

44. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer.

Post-White J, Kinney ME, Savik K, Gau JB, Wilcox C, Lerner I.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14713325

 

Source

University of Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. postw001@umn.edu

Abstract

Complementary therapies are increasingly used to reduce side effects of cancer treatment, without evidence for their effectiveness. In a randomized, prospective, 2-period, crossover intervention study, the authors tested the effects of therapeutic massage (MT) and healing touch (HT), in comparison to presence alone or standard care, in inducing relaxation and reducing symptoms in 230 subjects. MT and HT lowered blood pressure, respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR). MT lowered anxiety and HT lowered fatigue, and both lowered total mood disturbance. Pain ratings were lower after MT and HT, with 4-week nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use less during MT. There were no effects on nausea. Presence reduced RR and HR but did not differ from standard care on any measure of pain, nausea, mood states, anxiety, or fatigue. MT and HT are more effective than presence alone or standard care in reducing pain, mood disturbance, and fatigue in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.

PMID: 14713325

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

45. The effect of foot reflexology on pain in patients with metastatic cancer.

Stephenson N, Dalton JA, Carlson J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14608562

 

Source

East Carolina School of Nursing, Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA. stephensonn@mail.ecu.edu

Abstract

Thirty-six oncology inpatients participated in this third pilot study investigating the effects of foot reflexology in which equianalgesic dosing was calculated. Foot reflexology was found to have a positive immediate effect for patients with metastatic cancer who report pain, although there was no statistically significant effect at 3 hours after intervention or at 24 hours after intervention. Further study is suggested for foot reflexology delivered by family in the homes for management of cancer pain.

PMID: 14608562

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

46. The effects of therapeutic back massage on psychophysiologic variables and immune function in spouses of patients with cancer.

Goodfellow LM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14501546

 

Source

Duquesne University School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, USA. goodfellow@duq.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Spouses of patients with cancer are at risk for stress-related disorders and may experience a reduction in immune function. Therapeutic back massage (TBM) has been shown to enhance relaxation and thus, may reduce stress associated with caring for an ill partner.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine if TBM's influences on psychosocial, physiologic, and immune function variables in spouses of patients with cancer, and explore the relationships between psychosocial variables and immune function in spouses of patients with cancer.

METHODS:

This group experimental design measured the effects of a 20-minute TBM at three time points (preintervention, immediately postintervention, 20 minutes postintervention) on spouses of patients with cancer (N= 42) randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The major dependent variables including natural killer cell activity (NKCA), heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mood, and perceived stress were measured at the three time points to examine the effects of TBM. Data collected on measures of mood and perceived stress were correlated with NKCA to examine their relationships. Prior to hypotheses testing, data collected on measures of depressive mood, loneliness, marital disruption, and health practices were also correlated with NKCA to ascertain any possible confounding variables.

RESULTS:

Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance tests determined the effects of TBM over the two postintervention time points and resulted in significant group x time interactions on mood (F [2, 40]= 14.61, p=.0005) and perceived stress (F [2, 40]= 28.66, p=.001). Significant inverse relationships were found between mood and NKCA (r= -.41, p=.009, N= 42) and perceived stress and NKCA (r= -.37, p=.017, N= 42).

DISCUSSION:

Findings suggest that TBM may enhance mood and reduce perceived stress in this population. Insight was gained into the psycho-immunologic relationships studied.

PMID: 14501546

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

47. A randomised, controlled trial of the psychological effects of reflexology in early breast cancer.

Sharp DM, Walker MB, Chaturvedi A, Upadhyay S, Hamid A, Walker AA, Bateman JS, Braid F, Ellwood K, Hebblewhite C, Hope T, Lines M, Walker LG.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906525

 

Source

The Institute of Rehabilitation, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull, UK. d.m.sharp@hull.ac.uk

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To conduct a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effects of reflexology on quality of life (QofL) in women with early breast cancer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

One hundred and eighty-three women were randomised 6 weeks post-breast surgery to self-initiated support (SIS) (comparator intervention), SIS plus reflexology, or SIS plus scalp massage (control for physical and social contact). Reflexology and massage comprised eight sessions at weekly intervals. The primary end-point was 18 weeks post surgery; the primary outcome measure was the Trial Outcome Index (TOI) of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-B) - breast cancer version. The secondary end-point was 24 weeks post surgery. Secondary outcome measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mood Rating Scale (MRS).

RESULTS:

At primary end-point, massage, but not reflexology, was significantly better than SIS on the TOI. Reflexology and massage were both better than SIS for MRS relaxation. Massage was better than reflexology and SIS for MRS easygoingness. At secondary end-point, reflexology, but not massage, was better than SIS on the TOI and MRS relaxation. There were no significant differences between reflexology or massage. There were no significant between group differences in HADS anxiety and depression. Self-reported use of out of study complementary therapies indicated that this was unlikely to have a significant effect on findings.

CONCLUSIONS:

When compared to SIS, reflexology and massage have statistically significant, and, for reflexology, clinically worthwhile, effects on QofL following surgery for early breast carcinoma.

Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 19906525

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]