1. Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review.

Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20137814

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami Medical School, Miami, FL 33101, United States. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20137814

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2844909

 

2. Children's experiences of their participation in a training and support programme involving massage.

Powell L, Cheshire A, Swaby L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20129410

 

Source

Applied Research Centrein Health & Lifestyle Interventions, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, UK. l.powell@coventry.ac.uk

Abstract

This study reports on a research project that aimed to extrapolate the value of the Training and Support Programme (TSP), involving massage, among children with cerebral palsy (CP). Data gathering included information from interviews with a sub-sample of children and the TSP therapist observation forms. Data were analysed using standard thematic content analysis to identify key themes and issues of importance to children. Results showed that children enjoyed the relaxing aspects of massage and reported a number of improvements in their health such as improved muscle relaxation, mobility and bowel movements, and reduced pain. Future studies may need to explore other ways of extrapolating data from this population and similar populations where communication is impaired due to disability, but at the same time ensure that their views are listened to and acted upon.

Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20129410

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

3. Measuring the effects of massage on exercise performance and cardiopulmonary response in children with and without heart disease: a pilot study.

Beider S, Boulanger KT, Joshi M, Pan YP, Chang RK.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589710

 

Source

Integrative Touch for Kids, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Congenital heart disease, a common and serious birth defect, affects 8 per 1000 live-born infants. Decreased exercise capacity and development of obesity is common in this population. These children may benefit from therapies, such as massage therapy, that could enhance cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function when they exercise.

PURPOSE:

A pilot study conducted at the pediatric cardiology clinic of the Mattel Children's Hospital of the University of California-Los Angeles examined the safety and feasibility of measuring the effects of pre-exercise massage on exercise performance and cardiopulmonary response in children with and without heart disease.

PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:

SIXTEEN CHILDREN (MEAN AGE: 9.2 ± 2.2 years) participated in the study. Ten participants had various forms of heart disease, and six children were healthy. A female certified massage therapist with specialized training in pediatric massage provided a 30-minute massage to the participants. Using a standard protocol, each participant underwent two exercise tests: one test with and one without pre-exercise massage. Heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) were measured in the participants.

RESULTS:

All recruited participants completed the study. No adverse events occurred during any of the exercise tests or massage sessions. Measurements during exercise with or without a preceding massage were compared, and the pre-exercise massage condition yielded a significantly higher heart rate and higher minute ventilation. Measurements during exercise in children with heart disease and in healthy participants showed no significant differences in peak heart rate, blood pressure, peak VO(2), peak work rate, minute ventilation, or respiratory quotient.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this study, peak heart rate, peak VO(2), and peak minute ventilation were higher when children received a massage before exercise testing. Larger studies will be needed to investigate the strength of this finding. Future studies should include measurements of anxiety and psychological factors in addition to cardiopulmonary measures.

PMID: 21589710

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091436

 

4. Survey of the use of massage for children with cerebral palsy.

Glew GM, Fan MY, Hagland S, Bjornson K, Beider S, McLaughlin JF.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589684

 

Source

Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are merging into the broader field of "integrative medicine." Massage is no longer considered complementary or alternative in some conventional medical circles today.

PURPOSE:

We aimed to determine the prevalence of massage use among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the Pacific Northwest in the United States, the reasons that massage is being used, and the limits of recruitment for a future randomized controlled trial.

METHODS:

This study, the first step in a three-stage research plan, was conducted at the Neurodevelopmental and Neurology clinics at Seattle Children's Hospital, a tertiary pediatric hospital that provides service to patients primarily from Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. As a feasibility study (stage one), it precedes a planned pilot study (stage two), and subsequently, a full-scale randomized controlled trial (stage three) of whether massage can improve the health of children with CP. The study subjects-104 families with a child with CP ranging in age from 17 months to 21 years-were surveyed by the principal investigator and a research assistant in exam rooms at the hospital.

RESULTS:

In the families surveyed, 80% of the children had received massage at some point. Massage was currently being used in 51%, and trained professionals were providing the massage in 23%. Most families use massage for musculoskeletal relaxation, to improve quality of life, and to help their children sleep. Lower maternal income was associated with relatives as compared with professional massage therapists providing the massage. Massage therapy use by the mother and more severe CP were significantly associated with current use of massage for the child.

CONCLUSIONS:

Most children with CP in the Pacific Northwest have used massage. Most parents surveyed believe that massage is helpful to their child. Additional research is needed to determine whether massage should be routinely recommended for children with CP.

PMID: 21589684

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3088521

 

5. Massage therapy improves neurodevelopment outcome at two years corrected age for very low birth weight infants.

Procianoy RS, Mendes EW, Silveira RC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20022717

 

Source

Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and Newborn Section, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. renatosp@terra.com.br <renatosp@terra.com.br>

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Long term effects of massage therapy in very preterm newborns infants are still to be described. Few studies evaluated neurodevelopment just at six months, and included late preterm infants.

OBJECTIVE:

To study the effect of massage therapy on neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants at two years corrected age.

STUDY DESIGN:

Newborns with birth weight between >or= 750 and <or= 1500 g and gestational age <or= 32 weeks were randomly assigned to massage therapy by mothers plus skin-to-skin care (Intervention Group) or just skin-to-skin care (Control Group) during their hospital stay. Growth and neurodevelopment outcome were evaluated at 2 years corrected age.

RESULTS:

We followed 73 newborns (35 in Intervention Group, and 38 in Control Group). Both groups were similar in neonatal data. Growth at 2 years corrected age was similar in both groups. Intervention Group had borderline higher Psychomotor Development Index and significantly higher Mental Development Index scores than Control Group.

CONCLUSIONS:

We suggest that massage therapy by mothers combined to skin-to-skin care during neonatal hospital stay improves neurodevelopment outcome at 2 years corrected age.

PMID: 20022717

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2889164

[Available on 2011/7/1]

 

6. Effects of Thai traditional massage on autistic children's behavior.

Piravej K, Tangtrongchitr P, Chandarasiri P, Paothong L, Sukprasong S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20001837

 

Source

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. knpiravej@hotmail.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this study was to access whether there were any therapeutic effects of Thai Traditional Massage (TTM) on major behavioral and emotional disturbances in Thai autistic children.

DESIGN:

This was a randomized controlled trial study. Settings/location: The study was conducted at the Rehabilitation Centre of the Thai Red Cross Society.

SUBJECTS:

A total of 60 autistic children between the ages of 3 and 10 completed this study. Interventions: Standard sensory integration therapy (SI) was compared to the SI with TTM treatments. Outcome measures: Parents and teachers assessed major behavior disturbances using the Conners' Rating Scales at 0 and 8 weeks. Sleep Diary (SD), recorded by the parents, assessed the patient's sleeping patterns every week.

RESULTS:

Sixty (60) autistic children, mean age 4.67 +/- 1.82, were recruited. No statistical differences were seen in the demographic and baseline data among both groups. From both the Conners' Teacher Questionnaire and SD, statistical improvement was detected for conduct problem, hyperactivity, inattention-passivity, hyperactivity index, and sleeping behavior. However, results from the Conners' Parent Questionnaire revealed an improvement only for anxiety (p = 0.04) in the massage group, whereas when both groups were compared, a significant improvement in conduct problem (p = 0.03) and anxiety (p = 0.01) was found. Results indicated that TTM may have a positive effect in improving stereotypical behaviors in autistic children.

CONCLUSIONS:

Over a period of 8 weeks, our findings suggested that TTM could be used as a complementary therapy for autistic children in Thailand.

Comment in

PMID: 20001837

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. Massage therapy during early postnatal life promotes greater lean mass and bone growth, mineralization, and strength in juvenile and young adult rats.

Chen H, Miller S, Shaw J, Moyer-Mileur L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19949286

 

Source

Center for Pediatric Nutrition Research, Department of Pediactics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA. haiyan.chen@utah.edu

Abstract

The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of massage therapy during early life on postnatal growth, body composition, and skeletal development in juvenile and young adult rats. Massage therapy was performed for 10 minutes daily from D6 to D10 of postnatal life in rat pups (MT, n=24). Body composition, bone area, mineral content, and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); bone strength and intrinsic stiffness on femur shaft were tested by three-point bending; cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric measurements were performed at D21 and D60. Results were compared to age- and gender-matched controls (C, n=24). D21 body weight, body length, lean mass, and bone area were significantly greater in the MT cohort. Greater bone mineral content was found in male MT rats; bone strength and intrinsic stiffness were greater in D60 MT groups. At D60 MT treatment promoted bone mineralization by increasing trabecular mineral apposition rate in male and endosteal mineral surface in females, and also improved micro-architecture by greater trabeculae width in males and decreasing trabecular separation in females. In summary, massage therapy during early life elicited immediate and prolonged anabolic effects on postnatal growth, lean mass and skeletal developmental in a gender-specific manner in juvenile and young adult rats.

PMID: 19949286

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Outcomes of a massage intervention on teen mothers: a pilot study.

Oswalt KL, Biasini FJ, Wilson LL, Mrug S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916344

 

Source

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Abstract

The difficulties that adolescent mothers encounter as a result of the combined stress of adolescence, parenthood, maintaining peer relationships, and establishing positive relationships with their infants have been identified in the literature, and these characteristics are often associated with poor infant outcomes. This study was designed to examine the effects of an infant massage intervention on adolescent mothers' attitudes and perceptions of their infants. Twenty-five African-American adolescent mothers (mean age 16.13 years), who were enrolled in a parent training program for high school students in a southern state, participated in the project. The mothers were assigned randomly to an intervention (9) or control group (16). After a brief training session, participants in the intervention group practiced massage with their infants for approximately 2 months. Data analysis was based on the 15 participants who completed both baseline and 2-month follow-up measures (8 in the control group and 7 in the intervention group). This study found some support for teaching infant massage to adolescent mothers as a way of enhancing maternal-infant physical contact and lowering depression, as well as positively influencing mothers' perceptions of infant temperament. Results indicate that infant massage training may lead to improvements beyond those achieved with a typical parent education curriculum and shows potential as a low-cost supplement to current teen mother education in high schools.

PMID: 19916344

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

9. Rehabilitation of children after craniocerebral injuries with particular attention paid to the reflex stimulation Powiertowski's method. Preliminary study].

[Article in Polish]

Jedrzejewska A, Dobosiewicz K, Ickowicz I, Majka W, Flak M, Szota M, Czernicki K, Dyner-Jama I, Walusiak M, Pajak J, Bugała-Szpak J, Durmała J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19817250

 

Source

Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji SPSK nr 7 Slaskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach. reh@gcm.pl

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

An increasing number of craniocerebral injuries among children is becoming a serious therapeutic problem for emergency wards and for chronic treatment wards. The most important problem among these patients is a lengthening period of consciousness disorders. The aim of the study is to present a sample method of rehabilitation of children with brain injury.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The rehabilitation process comprised 15 children with brain injury, including 8 with cerebral hemisphere injury and 7 with brain stem injury. The method of early motion rehabilitation was applied. It was developed by H. Powiertowski in 1970's. In the years 1991-1999 the method was used at the Children's Ward of the Department of Rehabilitation by Professor Krystyna Dobosiewicz.

RESULTS:

As a result of the applied method, 13 out of 15 children with brain injuries regained consciousness. 2 girls with severe lesion of the brain, still unconscious were transferred to the intensive care ward in the place of residence.

CONCLUSIONS:

Powiertowski's method of motion stimulation, which is presented in this paper, turned out to be successful in the process of rehabilitation children with brain injury treated in the Department of Rehabilitation.

PMID: 19817250

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Impact of massage therapy on motor outcomes in very low-birthweight infants: randomized controlled pilot study.

Ho YB, Lee RS, Chow CB, Pang MY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19761514

 

Source

Physiotherapy Department, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of massage therapy on motor development, weight gain, and hospital discharge in preterm very low-birthweight (VLBW) newborns.

METHODS:

Twenty-four preterm VLBW newborns (<34 weeks and <1500 g) were enrolled in this randomized controlled pilot study. The intervention group (n = 12) received massage therapy starting at 34 weeks post-conceptional age (15 min daily, 5 days/week for 4 weeks). The infants in the sham treatment group (n = 12) received similar duration of light still touch. Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) score gain, weight gain, and post-conceptional age at discharge were compared between the two groups after intervention using Mann-Whitney U-test.

RESULTS:

No significant between-group difference in TIMP score gain and weight gain was identified when all subjects were analyzed. In subgroup analysis, among those with below-average pre-treatment TIMP score (<35), the intervention group (n = 6) achieved significantly higher TIMP score gain (P = 0.043) and earlier hospital discharge (P = 0.045) than the sham treatment group (n = 5). These same infants, however, also had significantly shorter duration of total parenteral nutrition than their counterparts in the sham treatment group (P = 0.044).

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage therapy might be a viable intervention to promote motor outcomes in a subgroup of VLBW newborns with poor motor performance. A larger randomized controlled trial is required to further explore the effects of massage therapy in this high-risk group.

PMID: 19761514

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

11. Qigong massage treatment for sensory and self-regulation problems in young children with autism: a randomized controlled trial.

Silva LM, Schalock M, Ayres R, Bunse C, Budden S.

Source

Teaching Research Institute, Western Oregon University, PO Box 688, Salem, OR 97308, USA. lmtsilvaqigong@comcast.net

Abstract

Autism is commonly associated with sensory and self-regulatory disturbances. This article presents a randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of a 5-month intervention directed toward improving sensory impairment, digestion, and sleep in 46 children with autism < age 6. The intervention, Qigong Sensory Training (QST), is a qigong massage intervention based in Chinese medicine. It is two-pronged: Trainers work with children directly 20 times over 5 months, and parents give the massage daily to their children. Improvement was evaluated in two settings--preschool and home--by teachers (blind to group) and parents. Teacher evaluations showed that treated children had significant classroom improvement of social and language skills and reduction in autistic behavior compared with wait-list control participants. These findings were confirmed by parent data, indicating that the gains had generalized across contexts. A model and supporting data for understanding and treating sensory and self-regulation problems in autism is presented.

PMID:19708471

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

12. Myofascial trigger points in children with tension-type headache: a new diagnostic and therapeutic option.

von Stülpnagel C, Reilich P, Straube A, Schäfer J, Blaschek A, Lee SH, Müller-Felber W, Henschel V, Mansmann U, Heinen F.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339283

 

Source

Department of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, Dr von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 80337 Munich, Germany.

Abstract

The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a trigger point-specific physiotherapy on headache frequency, intensity, and duration in children with episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Patients were recruited from the special headache outpatient clinic. A total of 9 girls (mean age 13.1 years; range, 5-15 years) with the diagnosis of tension-type headache participated in the pilot study from May to September 2006 and received trigger point-specific physiotherapy twice a week by a trained physiotherapist. After an average number of 6.5 therapeutic sessions, the headache frequency had been reduced by 67.7%, intensity by 74.3%, and duration by 77.3%. No side effects were noted during the treatment. These preliminary findings suggest a role for active trigger points in children with tension-type headache. Trigger point-specific physiotherapy seems to be an effective therapy in these children. Further prospective and controlled studies in a larger cohort are warranted.

PMID: 19339283

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

13. Massage with kinesthetic stimulation improves weight gain in preterm infants.

Massaro AN, Hammad TA, Jazzo B, Aly H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148112

 

Source

Department of Neonatology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA. anguyenm@cnmc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage with or without kinesthetic stimulation on weight gain and length of hospital stay in the preterm infant.

STUDY DESIGN:

A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted evaluating the effects of massage with or without kinesthetic stimulation (KS) on weight gain and length of stay (LOS) in medically stable premature (<1500 g and/or <or=32 weeks gestational age) neonates. Infants were randomized either to receive no intervention (control), massage therapy alone (massage), or massage therapy with KS (M/KS). Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the primary outcomes between the groups after controlling for covariates. Post hoc analysis with stratification by birthweight (BW> and <1000 g) was also performed.

RESULT:

A total of 60 premature infants were recruited for this study; 20 infants in each group. Average daily weight gain and LOS were similar between the groups after controlling for covariates. For infants with BW>1000 g, average daily weight gain was increased in the intervention groups compared to control. This effect was mainly attributable to the M/KS group.

CONCLUSION:

Massage with KS is a relatively simple and inexpensive intervention that can improve weight gain in selected preterm infants. Length of hospital stay is not impacted by massage with or without KS. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of massage in the extremely low BW(<1000 g) infant.

PMID: 19148112

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

14. Children with cancer and blood diseases experience positive physical and psychological effects from massage therapy.

Haun JN, Graham-Pole J, Shortley B.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589728

 

Source

University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous research has shown positive effects from massage therapy (MT) for premature infants and for children with asthma, arthritis, and other illnesses. Although these effects have been demonstrated, MT research on children with cancer and blood disease is needed. PURPOSE AND SETTING: The present study, conducted at the Cancer Center, Shands Hospital, at the University of Florida, Gainesville, measured the physical and psychological effects of MT on pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The participants were 30 children with cancer or blood disease, ages 6 months to 17 years.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

This randomized, non-blinded prospective study used measures of physical health and mental wellbeing that were completed before, during, and after four MT sessions were implemented. Descriptive statistics, one-way between-subjects analysis of variance, and an independent-samples t-test were used to analyze the data.

INTERVENTION:

The treatment group received 20-minute sessions of Swedish MT once daily for approximately 4 days (inpatients), or once weekly for approximately 4 weeks (outpatients); the control group received no MT.

RESULTS:

Between-groups analyses indicated significant psychological improvements for the MT group on state anxiety (F(1,58) = 16.79, p < 0.000), trait anxiety (F(1,58) = 3.95, p < 0.000), and emotional state (F(1,238) = 42.39, p < 0.001)]. Between-groups analyses indicated significant physical improvements for the MT group on muscle soreness (F(1,238) = 38.96, p < 0.001), discomfort (F(1,238) = 50.16, p < 0.001), respiratory rate (F(1,237) = 22.47, p < 0.000)], and overall progress (t(28) = 25.55, p < 0.000). No significant differences were found between groups on parent-completed ratings of their child's physical or psychological health, pulse rate, or blood pressure.

CONCLUSIONS:

In children with cancer and blood diseases, MT can reduce psychological and physical distress and can have a positive effect on quality of life.

PMID: 21589728

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091462

Free PMC Article

 

15. The effects of massage therapy & exercise therapy on children/adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Maddigan B, Hodgson P, Heath S, Dick B, St John K, McWilliam-Burton T, Snelgrove C, White H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19030480

 

PMID: 19030480

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2538473

Free PMC Article

 

16. Weight gain in preterm infants following parent-administered Vimala massage: a randomized controlled trial.

Gonzalez AP, Vasquez-Mendoza G, García-Vela A, Guzmán-Ramirez A, Salazar-Torres M, Romero-Gutierrez G.

Source

Department of Neonatology, Gynecology and Pediatric Hospital number 48, Mexican Institute of Social Security, México.

Abstract

Massage has been proposed as a way of facilitating development and growth of newborns through its effects on increasing blood flow, heart rate, digestion, and immunity. Massage might increase basal metabolism and nutrient absorption through endocrine effects such as increase in insulin and adrenaline and decrease in cortisol. Preliminary studies have suggested significant impact on weight gain with shortening of in-hospital stays of up to 6 days. We compared weight gain among preterm infants receiving Vimala massage plus usual care versus usual care alone. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty clinically stable preterm newborns with a corrected gestational age of 30 to 35 weeks receiving enteral nutrition in the hospital nursery were included. Half of them were assigned at random to receive Vimala massage twice daily for 10 days plus usual nursery care; the others received usual nursery care. Weight, head circumference, caloric intake, and nutritional method were recorded daily. Group characteristics were compared with analysis of variance, T test, and chi (2) test as appropriate. There were no differences between groups in gender, gestational age, initial weight, head circumference, and caloric intake and type of nutrition at baseline. Infants receiving massage had a larger weight gain versus the control group since the third day (188.2 +/- 41.20 g/kg versus 146.7 +/- 56.43 g/kg, P < 0.001). Hospital stay was shorter in infants receiving massage and usual nursery care (15.63 +/- 5.41 days versus 19.33 +/- 7.92 days, P = 0.03). The addition of parent-administered Vimala massage to usual nursery care resulted in increased weight gain and shorter hospital stay among clinically stable preterm newborns.

PMID:19023851

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

17. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

Livingston K, Beider S, Kant AJ, Gallardo CC, Joseph MH, Gold JI.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955228

 

Source

Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Rehabilitation Services, University of Southern California, USA.

Abstract

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants.

PMID: 18955228

[PubMed]

PMCID: PMC2781772

Free PMC Article

 

18. Come on my child, let's have some massage?"Puxação", midwives and reproduction in Melgaço, Pará.

[Article in Portuguese]

Fleischer S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18813582

 

Source

Centro Feminista de Estudos e Assessoria, Brasília, DF. sorayafleischer@hotmail.com

Abstract

This article presents ethnographic data, collected between 2004 and 2005, about the obstetric service offered by a group of 21 midwives in the city of Melgaço, state of Pará, Brazil. The literature has largely described the work of midwives in Brazil and in many other countries around the world. However, there is a kind of practice, which was analyzed very scarcely up to now. The objective of this article is to discuss precisely the practice called puxação, an abdominal massage performed mainly on pregnant women to alleviate indispositions, inform the position and sex of the fetus, help define the date and place of delivery, socialize women for maternity and put pregnancy into the context of the local patterns of reproduction, family, well being and health. It can be observed that these midwives offer a very suitable and appropriate pre-natal service, well adapted to the specific needs of the women of the town. Even though homebirth has been slowly giving way to hospital birth, this personalized service and practice keeps increasing.

PMID: 18813582

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

19. Massage decreases aggression in preschool children: a long-term study.

von Knorring AL, Söderberg A, Austin L, Uvnäs-Moberg K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18782279

 

Source

Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden. anne-liis.von_knorring@bupinst.uu.se

Abstract

AIM:

To evaluate the effects of massage in 4- to 5-year-old children with aggression and deviant behaviour at day-care centres.

METHOD:

The children received daily massage in preschool at the midday rest (n = 60). The controls were listening to a story (n = 50). The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) was used to rate the children's behaviour by parents and staff before the treatment started, and after 3 and 6 months. A long-term evaluation was also carried out. It included all massaged children still in daycare after 12 months (n = 34).

RESULTS:

Children with high scores of behaviour problems, receiving massage and/or extra attention showed significant decrease in aggression scores after 3 months, but after 6 months significantly lowered scores were only found in massage-treated deviant children. Parents of the children receiving massage rated a significant decrease of somatic problems of their children. Staff rated that the massaged children's social problems decreased, compared to the control children. Attention problems tended to decrease, especially at home. A continuous decrease in aggressive behaviour and somatic problems over a 12-month period was observed in the children receiving massage.

CONCLUSION:

Daily touching by massage lasting for 5-10 min could be an easy and inexpensive way to decrease aggression among preschool children.

PMID: 18782279

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

20. Massage therapy in outpatient pediatric chronic pain patients: do they facilitate significant reductions in levels of distress, pain, tension, discomfort, and mood alterations?

Suresh S, Wang S, Porfyris S, Kamasinski-Sol R, Steinhorn DM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18768049

 

Source

Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Children's Memorial Hospital, and Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA. ssuresh@childrensmemorial.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

This study was designed to look at the efficacy of adjuvant massage therapy in children and adolescents who presented to a chronic pediatric pain clinic for management.

METHODS:

After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent and assent was obtained, all pediatric patients who presented to the outpatient chronic pain clinic at Children's Memorial Hospital from July 2006 to May 2007 were invited to participate in a study that offered massage therapy as an adjunct to conventional pain treatment. Patients (n = 80 sessions, 57 patients) were asked to rate their levels of distress, pain, tension, discomfort, and degree of upset mood on a scale of 1-5 (e.g. for distress 1 = very calm; 5 = very distressed) before and after massage therapy. Paired t-tests were used to compare pre- and postmassage ratings and probability values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni procedure.

RESULTS:

After massage therapy, patients reported highly significant improvement in their levels of distress, pain, tension, discomfort, and mood compared with their premassage ratings (all t-values >6.1, ****P < 1 x 10(-8). To control for the possible effects of patients reporting improvements simply as a result of rating their symptoms, we collected control ratings before and after a comparable 'no intervention' time period in a subset of 25 patients. The 'no intervention' time period typically took place in the treatment room with the therapist present. Approximately 60% of the control ratings were obtained before the intervention and 40% were obtained after the massage therapy. None of the differences between the pre- and postratings associated with the 'no intervention' control time period were significant. In these same patients, the difference between the pre- and postmassage ratings were significant, all t-values >3.8, **P < 0.001.

PMID: 18768049

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

21. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 increased in preterm neonates following massage therapy.

Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M, Dieter JN, Kumar AM, Schanberg S, Kuhn C.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18714203

 

Source

Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine if massage therapy increased serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in preterm neonates.

STUDY DESIGN:

Forty-two preterm neonates who averaged 34.6 weeks (M = 29.5 wk gestational age; M birth weight = 1237 g) and were in the "grower" (step-down) nursery were randomly assigned to a massage therapy group (body stroking and passive limb movements for three, 15-minute periods per day for 5 days) or a control group that received the standard nursery care without massage therapy. On Days 1 and 5, the serum collected by clinical heelsticks was also assayed for insulin and IGF-1, and weight gain and kilocalories consumed were recorded daily.

RESULTS:

Despite similar formula intake, the massaged preterm neonates showed greater increases during the 5-day period in (1) weight gain; (2) serum levels of insulin; and (3) IGF-1. Increased weight gain was significantly correlated with insulin and IGF-1.

DISCUSSION:

Previous data suggested that preterm infant weight gain following massage therapy related to increased vagal activity, which suggests decreased stress and gastric motility, which may contribute to more efficient food absorption. The data from this study suggest for the first time that weight gain was also related to increased serum insulin and IGF-1 levels following massage therapy.

CONCLUSION:

Preterm infants who received massage therapy not only showed greater weight gain but also a greater increase in serum insulin and IGF-1 levels, suggesting that massage therapy might be prescribed for all growing neonates.

PMID: 18714203

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2663361

Free PMC Article

 

22. Massage therapy reduces hospital stay and occurrence of late-onset sepsis in very preterm neonates.

Mendes EW, Procianoy RS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18633421

 

Source

Department of Maternal-Infant Nursing, Nursing School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the effect of maternal massage therapy on hospital stay in very-low-birth-weight infants who were already submitted to skin-to-skin care.

STUDY DESIGN:

A randomized study was performed including infants of birth weight >or=750 and <or=1500 g and gestational age <or=32 weeks. The exclusion criteria were as follows: death before completing 48 h and presence of major malformations. Neonates were divided into intervention group (IG) (standard care plus maternal massage) and control group (CG). Anthropometric data were always verified by a person blind to the group to which the newborn belonged. Maternal massage was performed four times a day on the face and limbs. Passive exercises of upper and lower limbs were also done by the mothers.

RESULT:

A total of 104 newborns were included, 52 in each group. Both groups were similar in gestational age (IG: 29.7+/-1.6; CG: 29.4+/-1.6 weeks), birth weight (IG: 1186+/-194; CG: 1156+/-198 g), gender, number of small-for-gestational-age infants, SNAPPE-II, deaths, gains in weight, length and head circumference. Incidence of late-onset sepsis was significantly lower in the intervention group (IG: 10.8%, n=5; CG: 38.3%, n=18; P=0.005). IG was discharged from the hospital 7 days before CG (IG: 42, confidence interval (CI) 95%: 38 to 46; CG: 49, CI 95%: 42 to 56), and presented 1.85 hazard ratio (CI 95%: 1.09 to 3.13; P=0.023) for early discharge.

CONCLUSION:

Maternal massage therapy in very-low-birth-weight infants decreases the length of hospital stay and the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis.

PMID: 18633421

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

23. Pediatric massage therapy: an overview for clinicians.

Beider S, Mahrer NE, Gold JI.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18061789

 

Source

Integrative Touch for Kids, 8306 Wilshire Boulevard, #530, Beverly Hills, CA 90211, USA. shay@integrativetouch.org

Abstract

Pediatric massage therapy (MT), similar to its younger counterpart infant massage, has a limited number of rigorous studies supporting its clinical application and associated effects. However, clinicians and researchers have been intrigued by the potential benefits of pediatric MT for improving psychological and physiologic states in children who have various health conditions. This article provides a broad overview of pediatric MT, including proven and promising effects of MT across disease-specific clinical applications, contraindications, safety, context and availability of services, and future directions. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies, including prior reviews, primary case studies, and randomized controlled trials of infant and pediatric MT. Current findings provide varying levels of evidence for the benefits of pediatric MT in children who have diverse medical conditions; however, anxiety reduction has shown the strongest effect. Future studies should use rigorous study design and methodology, with long-term follow-up, for examining the longitudinal effects of pediatric MT.

PMID: 18061789

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

24. Baby massage: a lasting touch.

Pigeon-Owen K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17941508

 

Source

Independent Professional Therapists International. kate@childways.co.uk

PMID: 17941508

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

25. Energy expenditure in growing preterm infants receiving massage therapy.

Lahat S, Mimouni FB, Ashbel G, Dollberg S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17906188

 

Source

Department of Neonatology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman Street, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Massage therapy has been consistently shown to increase weight gain in preterm infants. The mechanism of this presumed improved metabolic efficiency is unknown. We conducted the following trial to test the hypothesis that massage therapy reduces energy expenditure in growing healthy preterm infants. Study

DESIGN:

A prospective, randomized, cross-over design study was conducted in 10 healthy, appropriate weights for gestational age, gavage fed preterm infants. Each infant was studied twice: after a period of either 5 days of massage therapy, or after a period of 5 days without massage therapy. Infants were randomized to 5 days of massage followed by 5 days of no massage (n = 5) or the opposite sequence (n = 5). During the massage therapy period, massage was provided daily for three 15 minute periods at the beginning of each 3 hour period every morning. Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry, using the Deltatrac II Metabolic cart.

RESULTS:

Energy expenditure was significantly lower in infants after the 5 day massage therapy period (59.6 +/- 3.6 Kcal/Kg/ 24 hours) than after the period without (63.1 +/- 5.4 Kcal/Kg/ 24 hours) (p = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Energy expenditure is significantly lowered by 5 days of massage therapy in metabolically and thermally stable preterm infants. This decrease in energy expenditure may be in part responsible for the enhanced growth caused by massage therapy.

PMID: 17906188

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

26. Preterm infant massage elicits consistent increases in vagal activity and gastric motility that are associated with greater weight gain.

Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Deeds O, Ascencio A, Begert G.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17888059

 

Source

Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA. mdiego@med.miami.edu

Abstract

AIM:

To determine whether preterm infant massage leads to consistent increases in vagal activity and gastric motility and whether these increases are associated with greater weight gain.

METHODS:

EKG and EGG were recorded in 80 preterm infants randomly assigned to a moderate pressure massage therapy group or to a standard care control group to assess vagal activity and gastric motility responses to massage therapy.

RESULTS:

Massaged infants exhibited consistent short-term increases in vagal activity and gastric motility on both the first and the last days of the 5-day study that were associated with weight gain during the 5-day treatment period. No changes in basal vagal activity or gastric motility were noted across the 5-day treatment period.

CONCLUSION:

Preterm infant massage is consistently associated with increases in vagal activity and gastric motility that may underlie the effects of massage therapy on preterm infant weight gain.

PMID: 17888059

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

27. Temperature increases in preterm infants during massage therapy.

Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17692385

 

Source

Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. mdiego@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Temperature was assessed in 72 preterm infants randomly assigned to a control or a massage therapy group. A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm infants receiving massage therapy versus a control group, even though the incubator portholes remained open during the 15 min massage therapy session but not for the control group over an equivalent time period.

PMID: 17692385

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2262938

Free PMC Article

 

28. Improvement in sensory impairment and social interaction in young children with autism following treatment with an original Qigong massage methodology.

Silva LM, Cignolini A, Warren R, Budden S, Skowron-Gooch A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17597498

 

Source

Teaching Research Institute, Western Oregon University, P.O. Box 688, Salem, OR 97308, USA. lmtsilvaqigong@comcast.net

Abstract

In clinical research, sensory impairment is considered one of the core deficits in autism and is associated with impaired socialization, behavioral disturbances and bowel and sleep problems. The effectiveness of the Cignolini methodology, an original Qigong massage methodology, in treating sensory impairment in young children with autism was evaluated in a small, controlled study. Thirteen children with autism between the ages of three and six received daily treatment according to the methodology for 5 months. Compared with untreated children, treated children experienced significant improvement of their sensory impairment (p < 0.01), and demonstrated increased social skills (p < 0.04) and basic living skills (p < 0.02) on standardized measures. In addition, all of the children with bowel and sleep abnormalities demonstrated improvement after treatment.

PMID: 17597498

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

29. Preterm infants show reduced stress behaviors and activity after 5 days of massage therapy.

Hernandez-Reif M, Diego M, Field T.\

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17548111

 

Source

Touch Research Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, United States. mhernandez-reif@ches.ua.edu

Abstract

Preterm infants residing in an NICU were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or to a control group. The preterm infants in the massage therapy group received three 15-min massages each day for 5 consecutive days, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure stroking to the head, shoulders, back, arms and legs and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of the limbs. Infant stress behaviors and activity were recorded on the first and last day of the study. Preterm infants receiving massage therapy showed fewer stress behaviors and less activity from the first to the last day of the study. The findings suggest that massage has pacifying or stress reducing effects on preterm infants, which is noteworthy given that they experience numerous stressors during their hospitalization.

PMID: 17548111

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2254497

Free PMC Article

 

30. Randomized controlled trials of pediatric massage: a review.

Beider S, Moyer CA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17342238

 

Source

Integrative Touch for Kids, Beverly Hills CA and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana IL 61801-4819, USA.

Abstract

The existing reviews of massage therapy (MT) research are either limited to infants, adults, or were conducted prior to the publication of the most recent studies using pediatric samples. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pediatric MT are reviewed. A literature search yielded 24 RCTs of pediatric MT, defined as the manual manipulation of soft tissue intended to promote health and well-being in recipients between 2 and 19 years of age. Because RCTs of pediatric MT varied considerably in the amount and types of data reported, quantitative and narrative review methods were both used. Single-dose and multiple-dose effects were examined separately. Among single-dose effects, significant reductions of state anxiety were observed at the first session (g = 0.59, P < 0.05) and the last session (g = 1.10, P < 0.01) of a course of treatment. Effects for salivary cortisol (g = 0.28), negative mood (g = 0.52) and behavior (g = 0.37) were non-significant. Three of eleven multiple-dose effects were statistically significant. These were trait anxiety (g = 0.94, P < 0.05), muscle tone (g = 0.90, P < 0.01) and arthritis pain (g = 1.33, P < 0.01). Results of studies not permitting effect size calculation were judged to be generally consistent with quantitative results. MT benefits pediatric recipients, though not as universally as sometimes reported. Numerous weaknesses endemic to MT research (e.g. low statistical power, frequent failure to report basic descriptive statistics) are identified, and recommendations for future pediatric MT research are discussed.

PMID: 17342238

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC1810360

Free PMC Article

 

31. Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care.

[Article in Chinese]

Chang SM, Sung HC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17340551

Source

Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi College of Technology.

Abstract

Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

PMID: 17340551

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

32. The effects of infant massage on weight, height, and mother-infant interaction.

Lee HK.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17215606

 

Source

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, 192-1 Whewja-dong, Chuncheon, Korea. leehk@kangwon.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of infant massage (auditory (mother's voice), tactile/kinesthetic (massage) and visual (eye to eye contact) stimulation) on weight and height of infant and mother-infant interaction with normal infants over a period of 4 weeks.

METHOD:

This study was designed as a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The experimental group infants (aged 2-6 months) participated in one of the infant massage programs at the health district center for 4 weeks. The control group (N=26) was paired with the experimental group (N=26) by matching the infant's age and sex. Infant weight, height, and mother-infant interaction were measured two times and recordings of the mother-infant interaction were done using the video equipment in a room at the health center for 10 minutes.

RESULTS:

After 4 weeks of massage, there were no significant differences weight gain and height increase between the two groups. Comparison of the total scores for the mother-infant interaction between the two groups showed a significant difference (t=5.21, p=.000). There were also significant differences on maternal response (t=3.78, p=000), infant response (t=5.71, p=000) and dyadic response (t=4.05, p=000) in the mother-infant interaction between the two groups.

CONCLUSION:

Overall, the results of this study reassure that infant massage facilitates the mother-infant interaction for infants and mothers who give massage to their baby.

PMID: 17215606

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

33. Moderate versus light pressure massage therapy leads to greater weight gain in preterm infants.

Field T, Diego MA, Hernandez-Reif M, Deeds O, Figuereido B. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138310

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, United States. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA=30 weeks) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages three times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15min before and during the first 15-min therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5-day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: (1) active sleep; (2) fussing; (3) crying; (4) movement; and (5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group.

PMID: 17138310

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1821345

Free PMC Article

 

34. Mothers' depressed mood and anxiety levels are reduced after massaging their preterm infants.

Feijó L, Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Burns W, Valley-Gray S, Simco E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138300

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA.

Abstract

Forty mothers whose preterm infants were about to be discharged from the Neonatal Intermediate Care Nursery (NICU) were randomly assigned to two groups: the first group of mothers conducted preterm infant massage and the second group only observed their preterm infants receiving massage. Both groups of mothers had lower depressed mood scores following the session. However, only the group who massaged their infants had lower anxiety scores after the session.

PMID: 17138300

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

35. Newborns of depressed mothers who received moderate versus light pressure massage during pregnancy.

Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Diego M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138261

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (D-820), P.O. Box 016820, Miami, FL 33101, USA. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Sixty-four neonates (M age=6.8 days) of depressed mothers who received moderate pressure massage versus light pressure massage therapy during pregnancy (month 5 through month 8) were compared on their behaviors during 15-min observations and on their performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. The group of neonates whose mothers received moderate pressure massage spent a greater percent of the observation time smiling and vocalizing, and they received better scores on the orientation, motor, excitability, and depression clusters of the Brazelton scale.

PMID: 17138261

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

36. Massage intervention for promoting mental and physical health in infants aged under six months.

Underdown A, Barlow J, Chung V, Stewart-Brown S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054233

 

Source

Warwick Medical School, Institute of Education, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. angela@underdown5.freeserve.co.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infant massage is increasingly being used in the community for low-risk babies and their primary care givers. Anecdotal claims suggest benefits for sleep, respiration, elimination and the reduction of colic and wind. Infant massage is also thought to reduce infant stress and promote positive parent-infant interaction.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of infant massage in promoting infant physical and mental health in population samples.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

Searches were undertaken of CENTRAL 2005 (Issue 3), MEDLINE (1970 to 2005), PsycINFO (1970 to 2005), CINAHL (1982 to 2005), EMBASE (1980 to 2005), and a number of other Western and Chinese databases.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Studies in which babies under the age of six months were randomised to an infant massage or a no-treatment control group, and utilising a standardised outcome measuring infant mental or physical development.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Weighted and standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Where appropriate the results have been combined in a meta-analysis using a random effects model.

MAIN RESULTS:

Twenty-three studies were included in the review. One was a follow-up study and thirteen were included in a separate analysis due to concerns about the uniformly significant results and the lack of dropout. The results of nine studies providing primary data suggest that infant massage has no effect on growth, but provides some evidence suggestive of improved mother-infant interaction, sleep and relaxation, reduced crying and a beneficial impact on a number of hormones controlling stress. Results showing a significant impact on number of illnesses and clinic visits were limited to a study of Korean orphanage infants. There was no evidence of effects on cognitive and behavioural outcomes, infant attachment or temperament. The data from the 13 studies regarded to be at high risk of bias show uniformly significant benefits on growth, sleep, crying and bilirubin levels.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

The only evidence of a significant impact of massage on growth was obtained from a group of studies regarded to be at high risk of bias. There was, however, some evidence of benefits on mother-infant interaction, sleeping and crying, and on hormones influencing stress levels. In the absence of evidence of harm, these findings may be sufficient to support the use of infant massage in the community, particularly in contexts where infant stimulation is poor. Further research is needed, however, before it will be possible to recommend universal provision.

PMID: 17054233

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

37. Impact of massage therapy on health outcomes among orphaned infants in Ecuador: results of a randomized clinical trial.

Jump VK, Fargo JD, Akers JF.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16980806

 

Source

Early Intervention Research Institute, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA. vonda@eiri.usu.edu

Abstract

Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among infants and young children in the developing world. This project investigated whether therapeutic infant massage could reduce diarrheal episodes and decrease overall illness of infants. Infants living in 2 orphanages in Quito, Ecuador, were matched by age and randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. The experimental group received an intervention, daily infant massage therapy by orphanage staff or volunteers, which lasted an average of 53 days, and symptoms of illness data were documented daily by volunteers in the orphanages. Results indicated that control group infants had a 50% greater risk of having diarrhea than experimental infants (rate ratio [RR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.03, P < 0.001). Control group infants were also 11% more likely than experimental infants to experience illness of any kind (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.96, 1.28, P = 0.17). The implications for the use of therapeutic infant massage, a remarkably inexpensive intervention, are discussed, and the need for further research is highlighted.

PMID: 16980806

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

38. Reflex therapy, massage, and manual therapy in the treatment of progressive myopia in children and adolescents.

[Article in Russian]

Neroev VV, Chuvilina MV, Tarutta EP, Ivanov AN.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16927779

 

Abstract

The paper describes the methods and results of multimodality treatment for progressive myopia in children and adolescents, by applying acupuncture, massage, and manual therapy. Thirty-three patients aged 7 to 17 years who had progressive myopia of 0.5 to 10.8 diopters were treated by an original procedure as repeated courses. Their follow-up lasted 2 years. A beneficial therapeutic effect as increases in uncorrected and subcorrected visual acuity, ocular accommodation reserves, and myopia regression rates was observed in 64% of the patients. Two-year myopia stabilization was achieved in 45% of cases. There were neither complications nor side effects. The possible mechanism of the remedial effect of the procedure is discussed in the paper.

PMID: 16927779

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

39. Prior leg massage decreases pain responses to heel stick in preterm babies.

Jain S, Kumar P, McMillan DD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925535

 

Source

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary and Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract

AIM:

Leg massage could inhibit the transmission of pain by 'closing the gate' or by activating the endogenous opioid pathway to decrease nociceptive transmission of pain associated with heel stick. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of massage therapy prior to heel stick on responses assessed by the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) (primary outcome), heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (secondary outcomes) in infants who required a heel stick for blood sampling.

METHODS:

This randomised, double-blind, crossover trial with infants from 1 to 7 days post birth excluded those with prior surgery, septicaemia, current assisted ventilation or an analgesic within 48 h. After informed consent, 13 infants received a 2-min massage of the ipsilateral leg prior to heel stick on the first study sampling and no massage on the next sampling 2-7 days later and 10 infants had the reverse order. The bedside nurse, blinded to the intervention, measured NIPS, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation prior to massage, after massage, and 5 min after heel stick. Serum cortisol was measured with the blood sampling.

RESULTS:

In 23 infants (birthweight 795-2507 g), there were no adverse physiologic effects of massage. After heel stick, NIPS (P < 0.001) and heart rate (P = 0.03) were increased in the no-massage group compared with the massage group. Respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and serum cortisol were not significantly different.

CONCLUSION:

Gentle massage of the leg prior to heel stick is safe and decreases pain responses in preterm infants.

PMID: 16925535

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

40. Effectiveness of massage of premature and newborn infants: what gets below the skin].

[Article in German]

Farinella P, Conti E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16883737

 

Source

Universitätsklinnik S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italien.

PMID: 16883737

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

41. Massage therapy and sleep behaviour in infants born with low birth weight.

Kelmanson IA, Adulas EI.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835031

 

Source

St. Petersburg State Paediatric Medical Academy, Litovskaya 2, St. Petersburg, 194 100, Russia. iakelmanson@hotmail.com

Abstract

This study attempts to evaluate the impact of massage therapy on sleep behaviour in infants born with low birth weight (LBW) in St. Petersburg, Russia. Fifty infants (22 boys, 28 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg between 2000 and 2002 and defined as LBW babies (<2500g at birth) were enrolled onto the study at the age of 2 months. Of these, 41 (19 boys, 22 girls) were light and pre-term infants (gestational age < or =36 weeks), and 9 (3 boys, 6 girls) born light at term. The control group consisted of 50 healthy infants born with LBW who were cross-matched with an experimental group of babies and controlled for gender, gestational age, weight and date of birth. The groups were also matched for proximal geographical distribution in the city. Babies in the experimental group were assigned massage intervention therapy that include gentle rubbing, stroking, passive movements of the limbs and other means of kinaesthetic stimulation performed by professionals until the infant is 8 months old. The findings suggest that 8-month-old LBW infants who received massage intervention were less likely to snore during sleep, required less feeding on waking-up at night, and appeared more alert during the day. These apparent correlations remained significant after adjustment was made for major potential confounders. No statistically significant difference was found in sleep behaviour between LBW infants exposed to massage therapy who were either born pre-term or at term. It is suggested that massage may be a valuable approach to improve quality of sleep and reduce sleep-disordered breathing in infants born with LBW. It is acknowledged that whilst this study does not represent a large sample, it is felt that the findings suggest further investigation and offer an insight into an area previously relatively unexplored.

PMID: 16835031

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

42. Effect of massaging babies on mothers: pilot study on the changes in mood states and salivary cortisol level.

Fujita M, Endoh Y, Saimon N, Yamaguchi S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835028

 

Source

Department of Nursing, School of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2-Iidanishi, Yamagata City 990-9585, Japan. fmegumi@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp

Abstract

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of baby massage for 3 months after delivery on mothers' mood status and salivary cortisol level. Study participants were a convenient sample of mothers who delivered their babies at a hospital in Japan, and were recruited at the time of the routine 5-6 weeks postnatal visit to the pediatric office. Thirty-nine mothers were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Nineteen mothers in the experimental group were examined before the first day of the baby massage, and 3 months after delivery. The psychological measurements used were profile of mood states (POMS). In the physiological measurements, the salivary cortisol level was analyzed. The result revealed that significant differences in the POMS score were seen in depression and vigor between the two groups at 3 months. There were no significant differences in the salivary cortisol levels. Baby massage was found to positively affect the mood status of the mothers. We propose that midwives and other health-care professionals should recommend mothers to do baby massage to improve their own mood status.

PMID: 16835028

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

43. Behavioral and massage treatments for infant sleep problems.

Forbes EA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16596932

 

Source

Bradley Hospital, East Providence, RI 02915, USA. eforbes@lifespan.org

PMID: 16596932

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

44. That loving touch.

Whitehouse K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16562655

 

Source

Katie@vitaltouch.com

Abstract

Early massage and positive touch in pregnancy can play a big part in helping to build closeness within a family group. I have witnessed an increasing number of dads bringing their babies to baby massage classes--but the power of positive touch can and should start long before that. If the father is encouraged to connect with his baby throughout the pregnancy using positive touch and simple massage, as their baby grows the mother, father and baby will all benefit.

PMID: 16562655

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

45. Salivary cortisol as an indicator of adrenocortical function in healthy infants, using massage therapy.

Fogaça Mde C, Carvalho WB, Peres Cde A, Lora MI, Hayashi LF, Verreschi IT.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358095

 

Source

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:

The evaluation of adrenocortical function with the use of therapeutic massage has been little studied in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels before and after Shantala massage therapy on healthy infants.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

Prospective case series, in a public nursery, in São Paulo.

METHODS:

Saliva was obtained from 11 infants at the times of 8:00-9:00 a.m. and 4:00-5:00 p.m. in a nursery and 9:00-10:00 p.m. at home. They received a 15-minute therapeutic massage on two consecutive days, and saliva was collected before and after the massage. The procedure was repeated after a one-week interval. Cortisol values (intra-assay < 5%; inter-assay < 10%) at different times of the day were compared by ANOVA.

RESULTS:

The mean cortisol values (nmol/l +/- SD) on the first day were: morning (M) = 14.1 +/- 5.7, afternoon (A) = 8.3 +/- 2.7, night (N) = 3.3 +/- 1.1; after two consecutive days of therapeutic massage: M = 22.3 +/- 13.5, A = 13.4 +/- 6.0, N = 5.8 +/- 3.5; after a one-week interval: M = 15.8 +/- 7.7, A = 14.3 +/- 7.7, N = 3.4 +/- 2.0.

CONCLUSION:

There was a modification in the salivary cortisol values following massage, thus reflecting possible adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

PMID: 16358095

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

46. Effect of oil massage on growth and neurobehavior in very low birth weight preterm neonates.

Arora J, Kumar A, Ramji S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340050

 

Source

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi 110 002, India.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the effect of oil massage on growth and neurobehavior in preterm babies less than 1500 g.

DESIGN:

Randomized Controlled Trial.

SETTING:

Tertiary level neonatal unit of a teaching hospital. Subjects: Neonates with birth weight <1500 grams, gestation >37 weeks, receiving enteral feeds of at least 100 mL/kg/day and less than 10 days of age.

OUTCOME VARIABLES:

Primary-Weight gain 28 days after enrolment. Secondary-Neonatal neurobehavior, change in other anthropometry and serum triglycerides.

METHODS:

Eligible neonates were randomized to one of the three groups (a) massage with oil (b) massage without oil and (c) no massage. Weight, length, head circumference and triceps skin fold thickness were measured in the three groups at regular intervals. Serum triglyceride levels were measured at enrolment and at completion. Neurobehavior using Brazeltons Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) was assessed at enrolment and after 10 days of intervention.

RESULTS:

Weight gain in the oil massage group (365.8 +/- 165.2g) was higher compared to the only massage group (290.0 +/- 150.2g) and no massage group (285.0 +/- 170.4g). This difference and the difference in other anthropometric parameters was not statistically significant. Serum triglycerides and neonatal neurobehavior were comparable in the three groups.

CONCLUSION:

Oil application may have a potential to improve weight gain among preterm very low birth weight neonates.

PMID: 16340050

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

47. Comparison and analysis on therapeutic effects of acupuncture plus massage therapy and drug on infantile diarrhea.

[Article in Chinese]

Wang XF, Teng X.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16312888

 

Source

Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning College of TCM, Shenyang 110032, China. Inzywxf@tom.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare therapeutic effects of acupuncture plus massage therapy and western medicine on infantile diarrhea.

METHODS:

A total of 120 cases of infantile diarrhea were randomly divided into a treatment group of 80 cases and a control group of 40 cases. The treatment group were treated by acupuncture and massage therapy, and the control group by smecta.

RESULTS:

The cured rate of 55.0% in the treatment group was better than 35.0% in the control group (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Acupuncture plus massage therapy has obvious therapeutic effect on infantile diarrhea.

PMID: 16312888

[PubMed - in process]

 

48. Exploring a massage intervention for parents and their children with autism: the implications for bonding and attachment.

Cullen-Powell LA, Barlow JH, Cushway D.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16275663

 

Source

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Health, Coventry University. l.powell@coventry.ac.uk

Abstract

This exploratory study aimed to address two questions: (1) What does touch mean between parents and their children with autism on completion of a massage intervention? (2) Do parents feel that their relationship with their children has changed on completion of a massage intervention? Fourteen parents agreed to be interviewed. Data were collected before the massage intervention (baseline), immediately after the massage intervention and 16 weeks from baseline and were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. At baseline, parents felt distressed that they felt unable to get 'close' to their children. After the intervention, parents reported feeling physically and emotionally closer to their children. Children expressed a range of cues to initiate massage at home. These benefits were maintained at follow-up for parents who continued to use massage at home. In conclusion, giving massage to children with autism may help to enhance the emotional bond between parent and child.

PMID: 16275663

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

49. Transcutaneous absorption of topically massaged oil in neonates.

Solanki K, Matnani M, Kale M, Joshi K, Bavdekar A, Bhave S, Pandit A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269830

 

Source

Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital, Pune 411 011, India.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the transcutaneous absorption of traditionally massaged oil in newborns and to specifically compare the effects of (i) essential fatty acid (EFA) rich - safflower oil and (ii) saturated fat rich coconut oil, on fatty acid profiles of massaged babies.

DESIGN:

A short term randomised controlled study.

SETTING:

Tertiary care NICU of a large teaching hospital and a research laboratory of a University complex.

METHODS:

120 study babies were randomly assigned to three oil groups (i) safflower oil (n = 40) (ii) coconut oil (n = 40) and (iii) no oil controls (n = 40). In each group, babies were selected in three subsets as per their gestational ages viz (a) less than 34 weeks, (b) 34-37 weeks, (c) greater than 37 weeks. 5 mL of the designated oil was massaged four times a day for five days under controlled conditions of temperature and feeding. Pre and post oil massage samples of blood were analysed for triglycerides and fatty acid profiles using gas chromatography.

RESULTS:

Post oil triglyceride values were significantly raised in both the oil groups and also in controls. However, the quantum of rise was significantly higher in oil groups as compared to controls. Fatty acid profiles (gas chromatography) showed significant rise in EFAs (linolenic acid and arachidonic acid) in safflower oil group and saturated fats in coconut oil group. Changes were more evident in term babies. There were no side effects associated with the massage.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study shows that topically applied oil can be absorbed in neonates and is probably available for nutritional purposes. The fatty acid constituents of the oil can influence the changes in the fatty acid profiles of the massaged babies.

PMID: 16269830

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

50.Oil massage in neonates: an open randomized controlled study of coconut versus mineral oil.

Sankaranarayanan K, Mondkar JA, Chauhan MM, Mascarenhas BM, Mainkar AR, Salvi RY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16208048

 

Source

Department of Neonatology, LTM Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai and Marico Industries Limited, Mumbai, India.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Oil massage for newborns is reported to improve weight gain by better thermoregulation. A role for transcutaneous absorption has also been suggested.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

This study was undertaken to compare the effect of massage with coconut oil versus mineral oil and placebo (powder) on growth velocity and neuro-behavior in well term and preterm babies.

STUDY DESIGN:

Open Randomized Controlled trial.

SETTING:

The Premature unit and the postnatal wards of a major teaching hospital in a metropolitan city.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Intramural preterm appropriate for gestational age babies weighing between 1500 to 2000 grams and term births weighing more than 2500 grams fulfilling the inclusion criteria constituted the two gestation age categories studied. Babies in each group were randomized to receive massage with either coconut oil, mineral oil or with placebo. Oil massage was given by a trained person from day 2 of life till discharge, and thereafter by the mother until 31 days of age, four times a day. Babies were followed up daily till discharge and every week after discharge for anthropometry. Neuro-behavioral outcome was assessed by the Brazelton Score at baseline, day 7 and on day 31.

RESULTS:

Coconut oil massage resulted in significantly greater weight gain velocity as compared to mineral oil and placebo in the preterm babies group; and in the term baby group, as compared to the placebo. Preterm infants receiving coconut oil massage also showed a greater length gain velocity compared to placebo group. No statistically significant difference was observed in the neurobehavioral assessment between all three subgroups in term babies as well as in preterm babies.

PMID: 16208048

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

51. Massage therapy for skin conditions in young children.

Field T.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16112449

 

Source

Touch Research Institutes, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. tfield@med.miami.edu

Abstract

Two studies are reviewed that highlight the positive effects of massage therapy on skin conditions in young children. In the first study children being treated on a burn trauma unit received 30-minute massages before debridement or dressing change. The children who received massage therapy were more relaxed during the procedure. In the study on children with eczema, those who were massaged during the application of their skin medication showed less anxiety after the massage sessions. Across the massage period the children also showed an improved clinical condition including less redness, lichenification, scaling, excoriation, and pruritus.

PMID: 16112449

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

52. The psychological well-being and self-efficacy of carers of children with disabilities following attendance on a simple massage training and support programme: a 12-month comparison study of adherers and non-adherers.

Williams HL, Cullen LA, Barlow JH.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16036168

 

Source

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Health, School of Health and Social Sciences, Coventry University, Whitefriars 104, Priory Street, Coventry, UK. hannah.williams@coventry.ac.uk

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The Training and Support Programme (TSP) is an 8-week programme in which carers of children with disabilities receive instruction in simple massage techniques to use with their child. The aims of the present study were firstly to compare, adherers and non-adherers on measures of psychological well-being and self-efficacy and secondly, to examine whether, for adherers, the positive benefits of attending the TSP reported immediately after the Programme were maintained at 12-month follow-up.

DESIGN:

Eighty-two carers took part in the study. Data were collected 12-months after completion of the TSP by self-report questionnaires mailed to carers. For comparisons between adherers and non-adherers at 12-month follow-up a between-groups design was used. For comparisons over time, a within-subjects design was used.

RESULTS:

Adherers had significantly higher levels of self-efficacy for managing their child's psychosocial well-being, self-efficacy for carrying out the massage, and significantly better psychological well-being at follow-up compared to non-adherers. Furthermore, there were no significant differences over time on self-efficacy for managing their child's psychosocial well-being, self-efficacy for giving massage and levels of anxiety and depression at 12-month follow-up for adherers, suggesting that their improvements noted immediately post-programme were maintained at follow-up. Significant decreases on self-efficacy and depression were noted for non-adherers and there was a trend towards deterioration in anxious mood.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, the present study suggests that the positive benefits the TSP has for carers of children with disabilities can be maintained if carers continue to practise the massage at home with their child.

PMID: 16036168

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

53. Interventional study on fatigue relief in mothers caring for hospitalized children--effect of massage incorporating techniques from oriental medicine.

Iwasaki M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16119609

 

Source

Department of Health Sciences, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011, Japan. tear@snow.dti2.ne.jp

Abstract

The study objective was to clarify the effect of massage on mothers caring for their hospitalized children. We conducted a comparative analysis of whether palm and shoulder massage could mitigate the physical and mental exhaustion experienced by such mothers. Subjects were 68 mothers whose children were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Kurume University Hospital with illnesses of varying severity. Twenty mothers living in Kurume City with healthy children were used as controls. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was employed as a mental index. Deep body temperature (frontal and palmar), systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured as physical indices before and after massage. The POMS scores for "Tension-Anxiety (T-A)", "Depression-Dejection (D)", "Anger-Hostility (A-H)", "Fatigue (F)" and "Confusion (C)" were significantly higher, and for "Vigor (V)" were significantly lower in mothers with hospitalized children than in the control group. Systolic blood pressures were also lower than those in the control group. After massage, T-A, D, A-H, F and C scores in the mothers with hospitalized children decreased and their V scores increased significantly. However, improvement in overall POMS scores was less than in the control group. And also improvement in each of the POMS scales was less than in the control group. Moreover, T-A scores in mothers of children with cancer were significantly higher than those in mothers of children suffering from other types of diseases. Our study demonstrated that mothers with hospitalized children were much more stressed than those with healthy children. The difference in the child's illness tended to exacerbate the degree of the mothers' mental fatigue. Massage has a favorable effect on stressed mothers and may be expected to serve as a useful supporting tool.

PMID: 16119609

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

54. Vagal activity, gastric motility, and weight gain in massaged preterm neonates.

Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16027695

 

Source

Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. mdiego@med.miami.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Multiple studies have documented an increase in weight gain after 5 to 10 days of massage therapy for preterm neonates. The massaged preterm neonates did not consume more calories than the control neonates. One potential mechanism for these effects might involve massage-induced increases in vagal activity, which in turn may lead to increased gastric motility and thereby weight gain.

STUDY DESIGN:

The present randomized study explored this potential underlying mechanism by assessing gastric motility and sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity in response to massage therapy (moderate pressure) versus sham massage (light pressure) and control conditions in a group of preterm neonates.

RESULTS:

Compared with preterm neonates receiving sham massage, preterm neonates receiving massage therapy exhibited greater weight gain and increased vagal tone and gastric motility during and immediately after treatment. Gastric motility and vagal tone during massage therapy were significantly related to weight gain.

CONCLUSION:

The weight gain experienced by preterm neonates receiving moderate-pressure massage therapy may be mediated by increased vagal activity and gastric motility.

PMID: 16027695

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

55. Positive touch, the implications for parents and their children with autism: an exploratory study.

Cullen LA, Barlow JH, Cushway D.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16005835

 

Source

School of Health and Social Science, Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Health, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK. l.powell@coventry.ac.uk

Abstract

The aims of this study were (1) to explore the experience of touch between parents and children with autism before, during, and after a Training and Support Programme (TSP), and (2) to develop a model of the process of touch therapy for this group of parents and children. Fourteen parents and their children agreed to take part in the study. Five of these parents withdrew. Reasons for withdrawal included personal circumstances and ill health. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews with parents before attending the TSP and Home Record Sheets completed by parents during the TSP. Results indicate that before the TSP touch was experienced as out of parents' control. During the TSP, the experience of touch appeared to change. A key benefit gained by parents was the feeling of closeness to children. The key benefits gained by children were perceived by the parents as improved sleep patterns, children were more relaxed after receiving the massage and appeared more amenable to touch. Of interest was children's request for massage at home. At 16-week follow-up both parents and children continue to enjoy giving and receiving touch therapy, respectively.

PMID: 16005835

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

56. The benefits of baby massage.

Paediatr Nurs. 2005 Mar;17(2):15-8.

Lorenz L, Moyse K, Surguy H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15793983

 

Source

Sure Start, Creswell.

PMID: 15793983

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

57. Traditional massage of newborns in Nepal: implications for trials of improved practice.

Mullany LC, Darmstadt GL, Khatry SK, Tielsch JM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15677372

 

Source

Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. lmullany@jhsph.edu

Abstract

Mustard oil massage of newborns is an integral component of traditional care practices in many communities. Recent evidence suggests that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly for preterm infants or for those whose skin barrier function is otherwise sub-optimal. Other natural oils such as sunflower, sesame or safflower seed oil may have a beneficial impact on newborn health and survival. Little is known, however, about cultural and other factors related to the acceptance and uptake of alternative, more beneficial oils for massage of the newborn. A questionnaire concerning the usage and reasons for application of mustard and other oils to newborn skin was administered to the caretakers of 8580 newborns in Sarlahi district of rural Nepal. Four focus group discussions among representative groups were conducted to describe the perceived benefits of oil massage and the factors involved in the decision to apply oil. The potential for the introduction of alternative natural oils was explored. Approximately 99 per cent of newborns were massaged at least once with mustard oil in the 2 weeks after birth, and 80 per cent were massaged at least twice daily. Promotion of strength, maintenance of health, and provision of warmth were the most commonly cited reasons for application of mustard oil. Focus group discussion participants noted that smell, oiliness, mode of pre-massage preparation, and perceived absorptive potential on the skin are important contextual factors involved in the practice. Caretakers are willing to consider adaptation of established traditions for the promotion of positive health outcomes if essential contextual criteria are met. An understanding of cultural, social, and economic factors that shape the context of traditional healthcare practices is essential to the design and implementation of intervention trials examining the relative efficacy of application of oils in reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity.

PMID: 15677372

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1317296

Free PMC Article

 

 

58. A blended infant massage--parenting enhancement program for recovering substance-abusing mothers.

Porter LS, Porter BO.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15597460

 

Source

School of Nursing, College of Health and Urban Affairs, Florida International University, North Miami, FL, USA.

Abstract

Interventions that build upon the natural components of early mother-infant interactions are critical to reversing the sequelae of maternal substance abuse and breaking the cycle of addiction. This paper proposes a theoretical model that blends infant massage (IM) into a planned parenting enhancement program (PEP) to promote improved health outcomes in recovering substance- abusing mothers (SAMs) and their babies. With 4.6 million women of child-bearing age regularly using cocaine in the United States and 750,000 drug-exposed births annually, maternal substance abuse highlights the multigenerational impact of drug use in high-risk populations and its risks to our children. The proposed IMPEP model provides a means to assist recovering SAMs in making cognitive-behavioral changes through new knowledge about parenting and parenting skills, with a special focus on infant stimulation via massage. The goal is to enable recovering SAMs to become confident and responsive mothers, empowering them to become effective parents. Pilot data suggest the Infant Massage Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) is effective for both mother and infant, and merits a controlled systematic study.

PMID: 15597460

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

59. Massage for promoting growth and development of preterm and/or low birth-weight infants.

Vickers A, Ohlsson A, Lacy JB, Horsley A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15106151

 

Source

Integrative Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York, USA, 10021.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It has been argued that infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units are subject both to a highly stressful environment - continuous, high-intensity noise and bright light - and to a lack of the tactile stimulation that they would otherwise experience in the womb or in general mothering care. As massage seems to both decrease stress and provide tactile stimulation, it has been recommended as an intervention to promote growth and development of preterm and low-birth weight infants.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine whether preterm and/or low birth-weight infants exposed to massage experience improved weight gain and earlier discharge compared to infants receiving standard care; to determine whether massage has any other beneficial or harmful effects on this population.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

The following databases were searched: the specialized register of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group and that of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. Searches were also undertaken of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psychlit, CINAHL and Dissertation Abstracts International (up to July 1, 2003). Further references were obtained by citation tracking, checking personal files and by correspondence with appropriate experts. Data provided in published reports was supplemented by information obtained by correspondence with authors. There were no language restrictions.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised trials in which infants with gestational age at birth <37 weeks or weight at birth <2500g received systematic tactile stimulation by human hands. At least one outcome assessing weight gain, length of stay, behaviour or development must be reported.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Data extracted from each trial were baseline characteristics of sample, weight gain, length of stay and behavioural and developmental outcomes. Physiological and biochemical outcomes were not recorded. Data were extracted by three reviewers independently. Statistical analysis was conducted using the standard Cochrane Collaboration methods.

MAIN RESULTS:

Massage interventions improved daily weight gain by 5.1g (95% CI 3.5, 6.7g). There is no evidence that gentle, still touch is of benefit (increase in daily weight gain 0.2g; 95% CI -1.2, 1.6g). Massage interventions also appeared to reduce length of stay by 4.5 days (95% CI 2.4, 6.5) though there are methodological concerns about the blinding of this outcome. There was also some evidence that massage interventions have a slight, positive effect on postnatal complications and weight at 4 - 6 months. However, serious concerns about the methodological quality of the included studies, particularly with respect to selective reporting of outcomes, weaken credibility in these findings.

REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS:

Evidence that massage for preterm infants is of benefit for developmental outcomes is weak and does not warrant wider use of preterm infant massage. Where massage is currently provided by nurses, consideration should be given as to whether this is a cost-effective use of time. Future research should assess the effects of massage interventions on clinical outcome measures, such as medical complications or length of stay, and on process-of-care outcomes, such as care-giver or parental satisfaction.

Update of

PMID: 15106151

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

60. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

Foda MI, Kawashima T, Nakamura S, Kobayashi M, Oku T.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15097435

 

 

Source

Department of Dairy Science and Technology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage.

METHODS:

Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one <3 months the other >3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated.

RESULTS:

Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage.

CONCLUSIONS:

Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

Comment in

PMID: 15097435

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

61. Physical activity combined with massage improves bone mineralization in premature infants: a randomized trial.

Aly H, Moustafa MF, Hassanein SM, Massaro AN, Amer HA, Patel K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15071483

 

Source

Neonatology Department, The George Washington University Hospital & Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Osteopenia of prematurity is a known source for morbidity in preterm infants. Premature infants have shown favorable outcomes in response to massage and physical activity. Whether such intervention can stimulate bone formation or decrease bone resorption is yet to be determined.

OBJECTIVE:

To test the hypothesis that massage combined with physical activity can stimulate bone formation and ameliorate bone resorption in premature infants.

DESIGN/METHODS:

A prospective double-blinded randomized trial was conducted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Thirty preterm infants (28 to 35 weeks' gestation) were randomly assigned to either control group (Group I, n=15) or intervention group (Group II, n=15). Infants in the intervention group received a daily protocol of combined massage and physical activity. Serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) and urinary pyridinoline crosslinks of collagen (Pyd) were used as indices for bone formation and resorption, respectively. PICP and Pyd were measured at enrollment and at discharge for all subjects. t-Test, ANOVA and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analyses.

RESULTS:

There was no difference between groups I and II in gestational age (32.1+/-1.8 vs 31.5+/-1.4 weeks) or birth weight (1.429+/-0.148 vs 1.467+/-0.132 g). In the control group, serum PICP decreased over time from 82.3+/-8.5 to 68.78+/-14.6 (p<0.01), while urinary Pyd increased from 447.7+/-282.8 to 744.9+/-373.6 (p<0.01) indicating decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption, respectively. In the intervention group, serum PICP increased over time from 62.5+/-13.8 to 73.84+/-12.9 (p<0.01). Urinary Pyd also increased over time from 445.7+/-266.5 to 716.8+/-301.8 (p<0.01). In a linear regression model including gestational age and intervention, serum PICP increased significantly in the intervention group (regression coefficient 18.8+/-4.6, p=0.0001) while urinary Pyd did not differ between groups (regression coefficient=5.6+/-114.3, p=0.961).

CONCLUSIONS:

A combined massage and physical activity protocol improved bone formation (PICP) but did not affect bone resorption (Pyd). Pyd increased over time in both groups, possibly due to continuous bone resorption and Ca mobilization.

PMID: 15071483

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

62. Randomised controlled trial of swaddling versus massage in the management of excessive crying in infants with cerebral injuries.

Ohgi S, Akiyama T, Arisawa K, Shigemori K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14977692

 

Source

Department of Preventive Medicine & Health Promotion, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki, Japan. ohgi@net2.nagasaki-u.ac.jp

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infants with neonatal cerebral insults are susceptible to excessive crying as a result of difficulties with self-regulation.

AIMS:

To compare the effectiveness of swaddling versus massage therapy in the management of excessive crying of infants with cerebral insults.

METHODS:

Randomised three-week parallel comparison of the efficacy of two intervention methods. Infants with symptoms of troublesome crying and their parents were randomly assigned to a swaddling intervention group (n = 13) or a massage intervention group (n = 12).

RESULTS:

The amount of total daily crying decreased significantly in the swaddling group, but did not decrease significantly in the massage group. Infant behavioural profiles and maternal anxiety levels improved significantly in the swaddling group post-intervention. Parents in the swaddling group were more satisfied with the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing crying than parents in the massage group.

CONCLUSION:

Results indicate that swaddling may be more effective than massage intervention in reducing crying in infants with cerebral injuries.

PMID: 14977692

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1719842

Free PMC Article

 

63. Massages and premature child care.

[Article in Spanish]

Merino Navarro D, García Melchor M, Palomar Gallardo C, Cano López MC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14508944

 

Source

Escuela Universitaria de Enfermería de Huelva.

Abstract

To give children massages has gained wide use as a supplementary therapy and this practice steadily gains larger support since it provides great benefits to children who receive massages and to the relationship between parents and their children. Our challenge is to apply this care method to premature children in order to provide these same benefits to them. Massages are developed in three phases: building a close relationship with a child by means of soft caress, establishing a relationship based on confidence with the family in order to help the family overcome the phases they are undergoing due to the seriousness of this procedure; initiating massages as part of the daily treatment program by the nursing staff; teaching this technique to parents so that they build the necessary affective ties with, and get to know, their children.

PMID: 14508944

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

64. Stable preterm infants gain more weight and sleep less after five days of massage therapy.

Dieter JN, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Emory EK, Redzepi M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12904452

 

Source

Touch Research Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, USA. jdieter@emory.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the effects of 5 days of massage therapy on the weight gain and sleep/wake behavior of hospitalized stable preterm infants.

METHODS:

Massage therapy (body stroking/passive limb movement for three 15-minute periods per day) was provided to 16 preterm neonates (mean gestational age, 30.1 weeks; mean birth weight, 1359 g), and their weight gain, formula intake, kilocalories, stooling, and sleep/wake behavior were compared with a group of 16 control infants (mean gestational age, 31.1 weeks; mean birth weight, 1421 g).

RESULTS:

The massage group averaged 53% greater daily weight gain than the control group. The massage group spent less time sleeping at the end of 5 treatment days than the control group and more time in the drowsy state.

CONCLUSIONS:

Healthy, low-risk preterm infants gained more weight and slept less with just 5 days of massage, in contrast to 10 days in previous studies. Results support the continued use of massage as a cost-effective therapy for medically stable preterm infants.

PMID: 12904452

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]