1.    Physiological responses to touch massage in healthy volunteers.

Auton Neurosci. 2010 Dec 8;158(1-2):105-10.

Lindgren L, Rundgren S, Winsö O, Lehtipalo S, Wiklund U, Karlsson M, Stenlund H, Jacobsson C, Brulin C.

Source

Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Sweden. lenita.lindgren@nurs.umu.se

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate effects of touch massage (TM) on stress responses in healthy volunteers.

Methods

A crossover design including twenty-two (mean age=28.2) healthy volunteers (11 male and 11 female) cardiac autonomic tone was measured by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Stress hormone levels (cortisol) were followed in saliva. We also measured blood glucose and serum insulin. Extracellular (ECV) levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol were followed using the microdialysis technique (MD). TM was performed on hands and feet for 80 min, during control, participants rested in the same setting. Data were collected before, during, and after TM and at rest. Saliva cortisol, serum glucose, and serum insulin were collected before, immediately following, and 1 h after intervention or control, respectively.

Results

After 5 min TM, HR decreased significantly, indicating a reduced stress response. Total HRV and all HRV components decreased during intervention. Saliva cortisol and insulin levels decreased significantly after intervention, while serum glucose levels remained stable. A similar, though less prominent, pattern was seen during the control situation. Only minor changes were observed in ECV levels of glucose (a decrease) and lactate (an increase). No significant alterations were observed in glycerol or pyruvate levels throughout the study. There were no significant differences between groups in ECV concentrations of analyzed substances.

Conclusions

In healthy volunteers, TM decreased sympathetic nervous activity, leading to decreased overall autonomic activity where parasympathetic nervous activity also decreased, thereby maintaining the autonomic balance.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20638912

PubMed - in process

 

2.    Physiological and clinical changes after therapeutic massage of the neck and shoulders.

 

Man Ther. 2011 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Sefton JM, Yarar C, Carpenter DM, Berry JW.

Source

Neuromechanics Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5323, USA.

Abstract

Little is known regarding the physiological and clinical effects of therapeutic massage (TM) even though it is often prescribed for musculoskeletal complaints such as chronic neck pain. This study investigated the influence of a standardized clinical neck/shoulder TM intervention on physiological measures assessing α-motoneurone pool excitability, muscle activity; and the clinical measure of range of motion (ROM) compared to a light touch and control intervention. Flexor carpi radialis (FCR) α-motoneurone pool excitability (Hoffmann reflex), electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of the upper trapezius during maximal muscle activity, and cervical ROM were used to assess possible physiological changes and clinical effects of TM. Sixteen healthy adults participated in three, 20 min interventions: control (C), light touch (LT) and therapeutic massage (TM). Analysis of Covariance indicated a decrease in FCR α-motoneurone pool excitability after TM, compared to both the LT (p = 0.0003) or C (p = 0.0007) interventions. EMG signal amplitude decreased after TM by 13% (p < 0.0001), when compared to the control, and 12% (p < 0.0001) as compared to LT intervention. The TM intervention produced increases in cervical ROM in all directions assessed: flexion (p < 0.0001), lateral flexion (p < 0.0001), extension (p < 0.0001), and rotation (p < 0.0001). TM of the neck/shoulders reduced the α-motoneurone pool excitability of the flexor carpi radialis after TM, but not after the LT or C interventions. Moreover, decreases in the normalized EMG amplitude during MVIC of the upper trapezius muscle; and increases in cervical ROM in all directions assessed occurred after TM, but not after the LT or C interventions.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 21570335

PubMed - as supplied by publisher

 

3.    Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms.

Rheumatol Int. 2010 Jul;30(9):1151-7. Epub 2010 Mar 20.

Kalichman L.

Source

Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. kleonid@bgu.ac.il

Abstract

Massage therapy is widely used by patients with fibromyalgia seeking symptom relief. We performed a review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials to determine whether massage therapy can be a viable treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms. Extensive narrative review. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, PEDro, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (inception-December 2009) were searched for the key words "massage", "massotherapy", "self-massage", "soft tissue manipulation", "soft tissue mobilization", "complementary medicine", "fibromyalgia" "fibrositis", and "myofascial pain". No language restrictions were imposed. The reference lists of all articles retrieved in full were also searched. The effects of massage on fibromyalgia symptoms have been examined in two single-arm studies and six randomized controlled trials. All reviewed studies showed short-term benefits of massage, and only one single-arm study demonstrated long-term benefits. All reviewed studies had methodological problems. The existing literature provides modest support for use of massage therapy in treating fibromyalgia. Additional rigorous research is needed in order to establish massage therapy as a safe and effective intervention for fibromyalgia. In massage therapy of fibromyalgia, we suggest that massage will be painless, its intensity should be increased gradually from session to session, in accordance with patient's symptoms; and the sessions should be performed at least 1-2 times a week.

PMID: 20306046

PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

4.      The effects of shiatsu on lower back pain

 J Holist Nurs. 2001 Mar;19(1):57-70.

Brady LH, Henry K, Luth JF 2nd, Casper-Bruett KK.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11847714

 

Source

Drake University, USA.

Abstract

Shiatsu, a specific type of massage, was used as an intervention in this study of 66 individuals complaining of lower back pain. Each individual was measured on state/trait anxiety and pain level before and after four shiatsu treatments. Each subject was then called 2 days following each treatment and asked to quantify the level of pain. Both pain and anxiety decreased significantly over time. Extraneous variables such as gender, age, gender of therapist, length of history with lower back pain, and medications taken for lower back pain did not alter the significant results. These subjects would recommend shiatsu massage for others suffering from lower back pain and indicated the treatments decreased the major inconveniences they experienced with their lower back pain.

PMID: 11847714

PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

5.    Low back pain in pregnant women

Ginekol Pol. 2010 Nov;81(11):851-5. [Article in Polish]

Majchrzycki M, Mrozikiewicz PM, Kocur P, Bartkowiak-Wieczorek J, Hoffmann M, Stryła W, Seremak-Mrozikiewicz A, Grześkowiak E.

Source

Katedra i Klinika Rehabilitacji Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu.

Abstract

Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

PMID: 21365902

PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 

 

6. Physical therapy treatment options for lumbar spinal stenosis.

Tomkins CC, Dimoff KH, Forman HS, Gordon ES, McPhail J, Wong JR, Battié MC.

Source

Department of Physical Education and Recreation, Mount Royal University, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T3E 6K. ctomkins@mtroyal.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Given the dearth of high quality research on conservative treatment for spinal stenosis, an empirical understanding of the scope of physical therapy provided in the community can help focus research and build standards of care.

OBJECTIVES:

Provide preliminary insight into current physical therapy practice in the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), from both patient and physical therapist perspectives.

METHODS:

Patients greater than 50 years of age with LSS diagnosed by a spine surgeon were recruited to participate in a telephone survey regarding treatment. Physical therapists were recruited to complete a survey regarding treatments offered to patients with LSS.

RESULTS:

Of the patients participating in the study (n=75), 44 (59%) reported receiving physical therapy treatment. Treatments most frequently reported by patients were massage (27%), strengthening exercises (23%), flexibility exercises (18%), and heat/ice (14%). The most frequently advocated treatments by the 76 physical therapists included flexibility (87%), stabilization (86%) and strengthening exercises (83%), followed by heat/ice (76%), acupuncture (63%) and joint mobilization (62%).

CONCLUSIONS:

These results can guide both clinical research priorities and standards of care for physical therapy treatments of LSS. Based on the results of this study, future research foci should include massage, flexibility and strengthening exercises, stabilization techniques and heat/ice treatments.

PMID: 20231787

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. The effect of manual therapy on masseter muscle pain and spasm.

Albertin A, Kerppers II, Amorim CF, Costa RV, Ferrari Corrêa JC, Oliveira CS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20405786

 

Source

Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Brazil. csantos@uninove.br

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Orofacial pain and pain in the muscles of mastication are frequent symptoms of temporomandibular disorder. The masseter is the closet masticatory muscle to the surface and has the function of raising and retracting the mandible. This muscle has considerable strength and is one of the main muscles involved in the shredding of food It is therefore of utmost importance in the masticatory cycle and generally the most affected by pain and spasms.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of manual therapy with transversal and circular movements on pain and spasm in the masseter muscle, using electromyography and a visual analogue pain scale (VAPS). Eight women who experienced pain upon palpation of the masseter greater than 6 on the VAPS were selected for participation in the study, which employed electromyography and a VAPS for assessment, followed by manual oral physiotherapy and reevaluation.

RESULTS:

The statistical analysis revealed a reduction in pain, but there was no significant difference in electromyographic activity (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

It was concluded that massage therapy was effective on pain symptoms, but was not capable of altering the electrical activity of the masseter muscle.

PMID: 20405786

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Treatment of an individual with piriformis syndrome focusing on hip muscle strengthening and movement reeducation: a case report.

Tonley JC, Yun SM, Kochevar RJ, Dye JA, Farrokhi S, Powers CM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20118521

 

Source

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaiser Permanente West Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN:

Case report.

OBJECTIVE:

To describe an alternative treatment approach for piriformis syndrome using a hip muscle strengthening program with movement reeducation.

BACKGROUND:

Interventions for piriformis syndrome typically consist of stretching and/or soft tissue massage to the piriformis muscle. The premise underlying this approach is that a shortening or "spasm" of the piriformis is responsible for the compression placed upon the sciatic nerve.

CASE DESCRIPTION:

The patient was a 30-year-old male with right buttock and posterior thigh pain for 2 years. Clinical findings upon examination included reproduction of symptoms with palpation and stretching of the piriformis. Movement analysis during a single-limb step-down revealed excessive hip adduction and internal rotation, which reproduced his symptoms. Strength assessment revealed weakness of the right hip abductor and external rotator muscles. The patient's treatment was limited to hip-strengthening exercises and movement reeducation to correct the excessive hip adduction and internal rotation during functional tasks.

OUTCOMES:

Following the intervention, the patient reported 0/10 pain with all activities. The initial Lower Extremity Functional Scale questionnaire score of 65/80 improved to 80/80. Lower extremity kinematics for peak hip adduction and internal rotation improved from 15.9 degrees and 12.8 degrees to 5.8 degrees and 5.9 degrees, respectively, during a step-down task.

DISCUSSION:

This case highlights an alternative view of the pathomechanics of piriformis syndrome (overstretching as opposed to overshortening) and illustrates the need for functional movement analysis as part of the examination of these patients.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Therapy, level 4.

PMID: 20118521

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

9. Can stimulating massage improve joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

Lund H, Henriksen M, Bartels EM, Danneskiold-Samsøe B, Bliddal H.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20128335

 

Source

Institute for Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. hlund@health.sdu.dk

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of massage applied to the thigh muscles on joint repositioning error (JRE) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA).We hypothesized that stimulating massage of the muscles around an osteoarthritic knee joint, could improve the neuromuscular function and thereby optimize the positive and minimize the negative performance factors in relation to an exercise program.

METHODS:

In a cross-over design, 19 patients with knee osteoarthritis, mean age of 73.1 years (SD: 9.4; range 56 to 88 years), recruited from the local department of rheumatology, were randomly allocated to either receive massage and a week later, act as controls or vice versa. The applied massage consisted of stimulating massage of the quadriceps femoris, sartorious, gracilus, and hamstrings muscles for 10 min on the affected leg. Participants had their JRE measured before and immediately after the 10 min massage and control sessions. Data were analyzed by using paired t-test.

RESULTS:

No significant change in JRE was observed (95% CI: -0.62 degrees to 0.85 degrees, p = 0.738).

CONCLUSION:

Massage has no effect on the immediate joint repositioning error in patients with knee osteoarthritis, ie, if an improved JRE is important for improving the performance factors when exercising, stimulating massage may not be recommendable to use.

PMID: 20128335

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

10. Interventions for hemiplegic shoulder pain: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

Koog YH, Jin SS, Yoon K, Min BI.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20055567

 

Source

Department of East-West Medicine, Graduate School, KyungHee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. samlunchim@hanmail.net

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The primary aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of possible interventions for hemiplegic shoulder pain. The secondary aim was to investigate whether reduction of subluxation or spasticity can decrease shoulder pain and whether a change in shoulder pain is related to change in passive shoulder external rotation.

METHOD:

MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to obtain the randomised, controlled trials. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of studies.

RESULTS:

Eight randomised trials were found in electronic databases. Aromatherapy plus acupressure, slow-stroke back massage and intramuscular neuromuscular electric stimulation were more effective than the controls at the end of treatment sessions. Intramuscular botulinum neurotoxin A injection and intraarticular triamcinolone acetonide injection were not helpful at one or three months after the end of treatment. Only intramuscular electric stimulation was effective at three months. These analyses found that shoulder pain improved independently of spasticity and subluxation. It was confirmed that the change in shoulder pain was associated with change in passive shoulder external rotation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although five interventions were used for managing hemiplegic shoulder pain, their effects were limited in the context of trials.

PMID: 20055567

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

11. Study on effect of massage therapy on pain severity in orthopedic patients.

Eghbali M, Lellahgani H, Alimohammadi N, Daryabeigi R, Ghasempour Z.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21589747

 

Source

Department of Fundamental Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pain as a main social problem has involved millions of people. Usually pharmaceutical methods use for treating pain but they have side effects which make them less effective. Massage is one of the effective ways for reducing pain after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of massage therapy on pain severity in orthopedic patients.

METHODS:

This is a clinical trial study on 60 arthroscopic knee surgery patients who were hospitalized in men's orthopedic ward of Al-Zahra and Kashani hospitals. A two part questionnaire was used for collecting data. Samples were selected using easy continuity method and then they were randomly divided into two groups. In intervention group, besides routine treatments, patients were massaged by the researcher for 20 minutes each day and pain severity was evaluated before and after the massage. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and SPSS software.

RESULTS:

Results showed that there was a meaningful different between mean score of pain severity before and after the massage in intervention group (p < 0.001) but this difference wasn't meaningful in control group (p = 0.32). Also comparing the mean score of pain severity in both groups before any interventions showed that there were no meaningful differences (p = 0.34) but this difference was meaningful after interventions (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Considering massage as a safe and effective intervention, it could be used as an easy, cheap and executable method for treating pain in all medical health care centers and even at patient's home.

PMID: 21589747

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3093031

Free PMC Article

 

12. Effectiveness of focused structural massage and relaxation massage for chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Kahn J, Erro JH, Deyo RA, Haneuse SJ, Cook AJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19843340

 

Source

Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, USA. cherkin.d@ghc.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chronic back pain is a major public health problem and the primary reason patients seek massage treatment. Despite the growing use of massage for chronic low back pain, there have been few studies of its effectiveness. This trial will be the first evaluation of the effectiveness of relaxation massage for chronic back pain and the first large trial of a focused structural form of massage for this condition.

METHODS AND DESIGN:

A total of 399 participants (133 in each of three arms) between the ages of 20 and 65 years of age who have low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from an integrated health care delivery system. They will be randomized to one of two types of massage ("focused structural massage" or "relaxation massage"), or continued usual medical care. Ten massage treatments will be provided over 10 weeks. The primary outcomes, standard measures of dysfunction and bothersomeness of low back pain, will be assessed at baseline and after 10, 26, and 52 weeks by telephone interviewers masked to treatment assignment. General health status, satisfaction with back care, days of back-related disability, perceived stress, and use and costs of healthcare services for back pain will also be measured. Outcomes across assigned treatment groups will be compared using generalized estimating equations, accounting for participant correlation and adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex. For both primary outcome measures, this trial will have at least 85% power to detect the presence of a minimal clinically significant difference among the three treatment groups and 91% power for pairwise comparisons. Secondary analyses will compare the proportions of participants in each group that improve by a clinically meaningful amount.

CONCLUSION:

Results of this trial will help clarify the value of two types of massage therapy for chronic low back pain.

PMID: 19843340

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2774684

 

14. Controlled clinical trials on the treatment and prevention of shoulder and back fasciitis using horizontal bar exercises

[Article in Chinese]

Liu BX, Xu M, Huang CJ, Tang FY, Lou YM, Liang Z, Liang WB, Wagn J, Liang DB.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19817194

 

Source

Department of Spinal Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi TCM College, Liuzhou 545001, Guangxi, China. liubaoxin898@163.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To explore an exercise method for the prevention and treatment of the patients with shoulder and back fasciitis.

METHODS:

From 2006.8 to 2008.3, 120 patients with shoulder and back fasciitis were randomly divided into control group (n = 60, including 21 females and 39 males, the average age was (47.0 +/- 12.0) years, and the average course of disease was (14.1 +/- 12.0) months) and treatment group (n = 60,including 19 females and 41 males, the average age was (43.7 +/- 9.9) years, and the average course of disease was (16.4 +/- 13.4) months). The patients in the control group received massage therapy and the ones in the treatment group were treated with massage therapy and horizontal bar exercise. After 3 weeks treatment, the curative effects of the patients in two groups were observed. All the patients were followed up for 6 to 26 months, the recurrence were observed.

RESULTS:

After 3 weeks treatment, the scores of pain, sense of heaviness, strip sign, tenderness, shoulder and back function of the patients in two groups had significant differences compared with those before treatment (all P < 0.01). After treatment, the scores of pain, sense of heaviness, strip sign, tenderness, shoulder and back function of the patients in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). After 6 to 26 months following-up, the rate of recurrence in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION:

Horizontal bar exercise is a simple, no expense and effective method in the prevention and treatment of shoulder and back fasciitis, which can improve the effect of the treatment and reduce the rate of recurrence.

PMID: 19817194

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

15. Massage for low back pain: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group.

Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, Irvin E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19561560

 

Source

Institute for Work & Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN:

Systematic Review.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects of massage therapy for nonspecific low back pain.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:

Low back pain is one of the most common and costly musculoskeletal problems in modern society. Proponents of massage therapy claim it can minimize pain and disability, and speed return to normal function.

METHODS:

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL from their beginning to May 2008. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, issue 3), HealthSTAR and Dissertation abstracts up to 2006. There were no language restrictions. References in the included studies and in reviews of the literature were screened. The studies had to be randomized or quasi-randomized trials investigating the use of any type of massage (using the hands or a mechanical device) as a treatment for nonspecific low back pain. Two review authors selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group, and extracted the data using standardized forms. Both qualitative and meta-analyses were performed.

RESULTS:

Thirteen randomized trials were included. Eight had a high risk and 5 had a low risk of bias. One study was published in German and the rest in English. Massage was compared to an inert therapy (sham treatment) in 2 studies that showed that massage was superior for pain and function on both short- and long-term follow-ups. In 8 studies, massage was compared to other active treatments. They showed that massage was similar to exercises, and massage was superior to joint mobilization, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture, and self-care education. One study showed that reflexology on the feet had no effect on pain and functioning. The beneficial effects of massage in patients with chronic low back pain lasted at least 1 year after the end of the treatment. Two studies compared 2 different techniques of massage. One concluded that acupuncture massage produces better results than classic (Swedish) massage and another concluded that Thai massage produces similar results to classic (Swedish) massage.

CONCLUSION:

Massage might be beneficial for patients with subacute and chronic nonspecific low back pain, especially when combined with exercises and education. The evidence suggests that acupuncture massage is more effective than classic massage, but this need confirmation. More studies are needed to confirm these conclusions, to assess the impact of massage on return-to-work, and to determine cost-effectiveness of massage as an intervention for low back pain.

Comment in

Republished from

PMID: 19561560 [PubMed]

 

16. Chronic low back pain: evaluation and management.

Last AR, Hulbert K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19530637

 

Source

Medical College of Wisconsin, Racine, WI 53403, USA. alast@mcw.edu

Abstract

Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal source; or (4) back pain associated with another specific spinal cause. For patients who have back pain associated with radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, or another specific spinal cause, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography may establish the diagnosis and guide management. Because evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, lumbar spine radiography should be delayed for at least one to two months in patients with nonspecific pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line medications for chronic low back pain. Tramadol, opioids, and other adjunctive medications may benefit some patients who do not respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Acupuncture, exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, massage, behavior therapy, and spinal manipulation are effective in certain clinical situations. Patients with radicular symptoms may benefit from epidural steroid injections, but studies have produced mixed results. Most patients with chronic low back pain will not benefit from surgery. A surgical evaluation may be considered for select patients with functional disabilities or refractory pain despite multiple nonsurgical treatments.

PMID: 19530637

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

17. Randomized trial of therapeutic massage for chronic neck pain.

Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Hawkes RJ, Miglioretti DL, Deyo RA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19333174

 

Source

Group Health Center for Health Studies, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. sherman.k@ghc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Little is known about the effectiveness of therapeutic massage, one of the most popular complementary medical treatments for neck pain. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether therapeutic massage is more beneficial than a self-care book for patients with chronic neck pain.

METHODS:

Sixty-four such patients were randomized to receive up to 10 massages over 10 weeks or a self-care book. Follow-up telephone interviews after 4, 10, and 26 weeks assessed outcomes including dysfunction and symptoms. Log-binomial regression was used to assess whether there were differences in the percentages of participants with clinically meaningful improvements in dysfunction and symptoms (ie, >5-point improvement on the Neck Disability Index; >30% improvement from baseline on the symptom bothersomeness scale) at each time point.

RESULTS:

At 10 weeks, more participants randomized to massage experienced clinically significant improvement on the Neck Disability Index [39% vs. 14% of book group; relative risk (RR)=2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-7.5] and on the symptom bothersomeness scale (55% vs. 25% of book group; RR=2.2; 95% CI, 1.04-4.2). After 26 weeks, massage group members tended to be more likely to report improved function (RR=1.8; 95% CI, 0.97-3.5), but not symptom bothersomeness (RR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-2.0). Mean differences between groups were strongest at 4 weeks and not evident by 26 weeks. No serious adverse experiences were reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that massage is safe and may have clinical benefits for treating chronic neck pain at least in the short term. A larger trial is warranted to confirm these results.

PMID: 19333174

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2664516

Free PMC Article

 

 

 

19. Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle in acute TMJ dysfunction syndrome

[Article in French]

Barriere P, Zink S, Riehm S, Kahn JL, Veillon F, Wilk A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19162287

 

Source

Service de stomatologie, chirurgie maxillofaciale, plastique et reconstructrice, CHU de Strasbourg, 1, place de l'Hôpital, BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg cedex, France. Philippe.Barriere@chru-strasbourg.fr

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle according to Cyriax's principles is an unrecognized procedure. This procedure was tried on patients presenting with temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Fifteen patients were treated. Pain, joint clicking, measurement of mouth opening, lateral excursion and propulsion were recorded. Assessment was made before and after the massage in the same consultation.

RESULTS:

Joint clicking was solved in 80% and pain in 50% of the cases. Mouth opening increased by 12.8%, propulsion by 11.6% and lateral excursion by 41.3%.

DISCUSSION:

Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle according to Cyriax's principles is a simple and efficient method that can be recommended for patients presenting with temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. We performed a brief anatomical and radiological MRI study supporting the feasibility of lateral pterygoid muscle palpation.

PMID: 19162287

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

20. The effect of myofascial release (MFR) on an adult with idiopathic scoliosis.

LeBauer A, Brtalik R, Stowe K.\

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19083694

 

Source

Elon University, Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon, NC 27244, USA. alebauer@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The lack of evidence of conservative treatment has led to an interest in exploring myofascial release (MFR) as an effective means of controlling spinal curvature progression in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this case study is to measure the effects of MFR as a manual therapy technique in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

METHODS:

One 18-year-old female subject underwent 6 weeks of MFR treatment consisting of two sessions each week for 60min. Pain, pulmonary function, and quality of life were measured. Six goniometric measurements were taken encompassing trunk flexion, extension, and rotation.

RESULTS:

The subject improved with pain levels, trunk rotation, posture, quality of life, and pulmonary function.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggest further investigation is needed using MFR, as an effective manual therapy treatment for idiopathic scoliosis.

PMID: 19083694

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

21. Massage therapy helps to increase range of motion, decrease pain and assist in healing a client with low back pain and sciatica symptoms.

Bell J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19083683

 

Source

jadabell4massage@yahoo.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study evaluated the effectiveness of massage therapy as a component in increasing range of motion (ROM), decreasing pain and assisting in healing of a client with low back pain (LBP) and sciatica symptoms.

METHODS:

The client presented with an insidious onset of LBP and pain that radiated into the right lower extremity (sciatica). The client had been experiencing this pain daily for the past 9 months. Frequency, duration, and intensity of symptoms were recorded in a daily diary beginning the day after the client's first visit with the massage therapist. Manual therapy was administered once a week; each session lasted 45 min and consisted of a structured protocol directed mainly toward muscles of the lumbar spine, pelvis, thigh, and leg regions.

RESULTS:

The results of this study suggest that massage therapy was effective at reducing LBP intensity and increasing ROM for this particular client. LBP intensity was assessed at level one the first three assessment periods. The reduction in post-massage LBP intensity was maintained from week six until week 10 with the exception of week six (no change) and week seven (pain increase due to intense trigger point treatment). The client's activities of daily living (ADLs) steadily increased throughout the 10-week study.

CONCLUSION:

The distinct techniques and stretches used during the course of this study have the possibility of becoming useful, non-pharmacological interventions for reducing or eliminating pain and sciatica symptoms associated with low back pain.

PMID: 19083683

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  

22.Quantitative application of transverse friction massage and its neurological effects on flexor carpi radialis.

Lee HM, Wu SK, You JY.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19027340

 

Source

Department of Physical Therapy, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC. hmlee@isu.edu.tw

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of transverse friction massage (TFM) on flexor carpi radialis (FCR) motoneuron (MN) pool excitability. Twenty-eight healthy subjects were randomly assigned into massage and control groups. Pre- vs post-TFM H-reflex data were collected. Controls received a rest period instead of massage. Massage dose was standardized by a novel electronic method which recorded the massage rate, momentary pressure and total cumulative pressure (energy). Two-way ANOVA of H/M ratios derived from maximal amplitudes of Hoffman reflexes (Hmax) and motor responses (Mmax) was used to analyze neurological effects and group differences. Analysis of pressure/time curve data showed: mean massage rate was 0.501+/-0.005 Hz; mean duration of massage sessions was 184.6+/-26.4s; mean peak pressure was 4.990+/-1.006 psi. Hmax/Mmax ratios declined from 14.3% to 10.3% for massage (P<0.01) but showed no change for controls (P>0.05). In conclusion a novel quantitative approach to the study of massage has been demonstrated while testing the effects of TFM on FCR MN pool excitability. TFM appears to reduce MN pool excitability. The novel method of quantifying massage permits more rigorous testing of client-centered massage in future research.

PMID: 19027340

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

23. Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness.

[Article in Polish]

Bakowski P, Musielak B, Sip P, Biegański G.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18847018

 

Source

Studenckie Koło Medycyny Sportowej, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu. pawelbakowski@o2.pl

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 12 to 24 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 4 to 6 days. Once thought to be caused by lactic acid buildup, a more recent theory is that it is caused by inflammatory process or tiny tears in the muscle fibers caused by eccentric contraction, or unaccustomed training levels. Exercises that involve many eccentric contractions will result in the most severe DOMS.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Fourteen healthy men with no history of upper arm injury and no experience in resistance training were recruited. The mean age, height, and mass of the subjects were 22.8 +/- 1.2 years, 178.3 +/- 10.3 cm, and 75.0 +/- 14.2 kg, respectively. Subjects performed 8 sets of concentric and eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with each arm according to Stay protocol. One arm received 10 minutes of massage 30 minutes after exercise, the contralateral arm received no treatment. Measurements were taken at 9 assessment times: pre-exercise and postexercise at 10 min, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Dependent variables were range of motion, perceived soreness and upper arm circumference.

RESULTS:

There was noticed difference in perceived soreness across time between groups. The analysis indicated that massage resulted in a 10% to 20% decrease in the severity of soreness, but the differences were not significant. Difference in range of motion and arm circumference was not observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage administered 30 minutes after exercises could have a beneficial influence on DOMS but without influence on muscle swelling and range of motion.

PMID: 18847018

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

24. Massage for low-back pain.

Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, Irvin E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843627

 

Source

Institute for Work & Health, 481 University Avenue, Suite 800, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 2E9. afurlan@iwh.on.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low-back pain is one of the most common and costly musculoskeletal problems in modern society. Proponents of massage therapy claim it can minimize pain and disability, and speed return to normal function.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects of massage therapy for non-specific low-back pain.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL from their beginning to May 2008. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, issue 3), HealthSTAR and Dissertation abstracts up to 2006. There were no language restrictions. References in the included studies and in reviews of the literature were screened.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

The studies had to be randomized or quasi-randomized trials investigating the use of any type of massage (using the hands or a mechanical device) as a treatment for non-specific low-back pain.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two review authors selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group, and extracted the data using standardized forms. Both qualitative and meta-analyses were performed.

MAIN RESULTS:

Thirteen randomized trials were included. Eight had a high risk and five had a low risk of bias. One study was published in German and the rest in English. Massage was compared to an inert therapy (sham treatment) in two studies that showed that massage was superior for pain and function on both short and long-term follow-ups. In eight studies, massage was compared to other active treatments. They showed that massage was similar to exercises, and massage was superior to joint mobilization, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture and self-care education. One study showed that reflexology on the feet had no effect on pain and functioning. The beneficial effects of massage in patients with chronic low-back pain lasted at least one year after the end of the treatment. Two studies compared two different techniques of massage. One concluded that acupuncture massage produces better results than classic (Swedish) massage and another concluded that Thai massage produces similar results to classic (Swedish) massage.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

Massage might be beneficial for patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain, especially when combined with exercises and education. The evidence suggests that acupuncture massage is more effective than classic massage, but this need confirmation. More studies are needed to confirm these conclusions, to assess the impact of massage on return-to-work, and to determine cost-effectiveness of massage as an intervention for low-back pain.

Republished in

Update of

PMID: 18843627

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

25. Effectiveness of sports massage for recovery of skeletal muscle from strenuous exercise.

Best TM, Hunter R, Wilcox A, Haq F.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806553

 

Source

Department of Family Medicine, Division of Sports Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43221, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Sport massage, a manual therapy for muscle and soft tissue pain and weakness, is a popular and widely used modality for recovery after intense exercise. Our objective is to determine the effectiveness of sport massage for improving recovery after strenuous exercise.

DATA SOURCES:

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL using all current and historical names for sport massage. Reference sections of included articles were scanned to identify additional relevant articles.

STUDY SELECTION:

Study inclusion criteria required that subjects (1) were humans, (2) performed strenuous exercise, (3) received massage, and (4) were assessed for muscle recovery and performance. Ultimately, 27 studies met inclusion criteria.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Eligible studies were reviewed, and data were extracted by the senior author (TMB). The main outcomes extracted were type and timing of massage and outcome measures studied.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Data from 17 case series revealed inconsistent results. Most studies evaluating post-exercise function suggest that massage is not effective, whereas studies that also evaluated the symptoms of DOMS did show some benefit. Data from 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) do, however, provide moderate evidence for the efficacy of massage therapy. The search identified no trend between type and timing of massage and any specific outcome measures investigated.

CONCLUSIONS:

Case series provide little support for the use of massage to aid muscle recovery or performance after intense exercise. In contrast, RCTs provide moderate data supporting its use to facilitate recovery from repetitive muscular contractions. Further investigation using standardized protocols measuring similar outcome variables is necessary to more conclusively determine the efficacy of sport massage and the optimal strategy for its implementation to enhance recovery following intense exercise.

PMID: 18806553

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

26. A system for implementation of steep massage in patients with musculoskeletal pain syndromes.

[Article in Russian]

Klimenko MM, Belik DV.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18683578

 

Abstract

A system for implementation of steep massage in patients with musculoskeletal pain syndromes is described. The system provides effective medical care of patients with bearing disorders, scoliosis, osteochondrosis, and other diseases. The system uses steep massage and the effect on the internal receptors of muscles around the backbone.

PMID: 18683578

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

27. The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage.

Howatson G, van Someren KA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18489195

 

Source

School of Human Sciences, St Mary's University College, Twickenham, UK. howatsong@smuc.ac.uk

Abstract

Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can be caused by novel or unaccustomed exercise and results in a temporary decrease in muscle force production, a rise in passive tension, increased muscle soreness and swelling, and an increase in intramuscular proteins in blood. Consequently, EIMD can have a profound effect on the ability to perform subsequent bouts of exercise and therefore adhere to an exercise training programme. A variety of interventions have been used prophylactically and/or therapeutically in an attempt to reduce the negative effects associated with EIMD. This article focuses on some of the most commonly used strategies, including nutritional and pharmacological strategies, electrical and manual therapies and exercise. Long-term supplementation with antioxidants or beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate appears to provide a prophylactic effect in reducing EIMD, as does the ingestion of protein before and following exercise. Although the administration of high-dose NSAIDs may reduce EIMD and muscle soreness, it also attenuates the adaptive processes and should therefore not be prescribed for long-term treatment of EIMD. Whilst there is some evidence that stretching and massage may reduce muscle soreness, there is little evidence indicating any performance benefits. Electrical therapies and cryotherapy offer limited effect in the treatment of EIMD; however, inconsistencies in the dose and frequency of these and other interventions may account for the lack of consensus regarding their efficacy. Both as a cause and a consequence of this, there are very few evidence-based guidelines for the application of many of these interventions. Conversely, there is unequivocal evidence that prior bouts of eccentric exercise provide a protective effect against subsequent bouts of potentially damaging exercise. Further research is warranted to elucidate the most appropriate dose and frequency of interventions to attenuate EIMD and if these interventions attenuate the adaptation process. This will both clarify the efficacy of such strategies and provide guidelines for evidence-based practice.

PMID: 18489195

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

28. Massage reduces pain perception and hyperalgesia in experimental muscle pain: a randomized, controlled trial.

Frey Law LA, Evans S, Knudtson J, Nus S, Scholl K, Sluka KA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18455480

 

Source

Program in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. USA. laura-freylaw@uiowa.edu

Abstract

Massage is a common conservative intervention used to treat myalgia. Although subjective reports have supported the premise that massage decreases pain, few studies have systematically investigated the dose response characteristics of massage relative to a control group. The purpose of this study was to perform a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of the effects of massage on mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds, PPT) and perceived pain using delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) as an endogenous model of myalgia. Participants were randomly assigned to a no-treatment control, superficial touch, or deep-tissue massage group. Eccentric wrist extension exercises were performed at visit 1 to induce DOMS 48 hours later at visit 2. Pain, assessed using visual analog scales (VAS), and PPTs were measured at baseline, after exercise, before treatment, and after treatment. Deep massage decreased pain (48.4% DOMS reversal) during muscle stretch. Mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced (27.5% reversal) after both the deep massage and superficial touch groups relative to control (increased hyperalgesia by 38.4%). Resting pain did not vary between treatment groups. PERSPECTIVE: This randomized, controlled trial suggests that massage is capable of reducing myalgia symptoms by approximately 25% to 50%, varying with assessment technique. Thus, potential analgesia may depend on the pain assessment used. This information may assist clinicians in determining conservative treatment options for patients with myalgia.

PMID: 18455480

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

29. Effects of petrissage massage on fatigue and exercise performance following intensive cycle pedalling.

Ogai R, Yamane M, Matsumoto T, Kosaka M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385196

 

Source

Laboratory for Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics, Chukyo University Graduate School of Health and Sport Sciences, 101 Tokodachi, Kaizu-cho, Toyota, 470-0393 Aichi, Japan. rogyai@yahoo.co.jp

Erratum in

  • Br J Sports Med. 2009 Apr;43(4):310-1.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Petrissage is assumed to influence circulation as well as interstitial drainage of both superficial and deep tissues. To study its effect it was applied between consecutive bouts of supramaximal exercise performed by the lower leg muscles.

METHODS:

Subjects were 11 healthy female students actively engaged in sports. Exercise bouts of ergometer cycling at loads determined individually (0.075 kp x body weight (kg)) for 5 s repeated eight times at intervals of 20 s had to be performed twice on an experimental day with 35 min intermittent bed rest. Each subject was investigated on two occasions with a minimum interval of 1 week, once without (control, CO) and once with 10 min petrissage (massage, MA) of the exercising lower leg during the bed rest phase. Effects of exercise bouts on blood lactate, muscle stiffness and perceived lower limb fatigue and their recovery before and after the second exercise bout were determined.

RESULTS:

For the first exercise bouts total power did not differ between MA and CO. Courses of blood lactate did not differ between MA and CO. However, recovery from measured muscle stiffness (p<0.05) and perceived lower limb fatigue (p<0.05) were more pronounced and total power during the second exercise bout was enhanced (p<0.01) in MA as compared with CO subjects.

CONCLUSION:

Petrissage improved cycle ergometer pedalling performance independent of blood lactate but in correlation with improved recovery from muscle stiffness and perceived lower limb fatigue.

PMID: 18385196

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

30. Reflexology in the management of low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

Quinn F, Hughes CM, Baxter GD.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18346622

 

Source

Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Co. Antrim BT37 OQB, United Kingdom.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The current study was designed as a pilot study for a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of reflexology in the management of low back pain (LBP).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Participants suffering non-specific LBP were recruited and randomised into either a reflexology or a sham group. Patients and outcome assessor were blinded to group allocation. Each patient received either a 40 min reflexology treatment or sham treatment (according to group allocation) once per week for six consecutive weeks. The primary outcome measure was pain (visual analogue scale), secondary outcome measures were the McGill pain questionnaire, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, and SF-36 health survey. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, week 6, week 12 and week 18.

RESULTS:

VAS scores for pain reduced in the treatment group by a median value of 2.5 cm, with minimal change in the sham group (0.2 cm). Secondary outcome measures produced an improvement in both groups (McGill pain questionnaire: 18 points in the reflexology group and 11.5 points in the sham group). Results indicate that reflexology may have a positive effect on LBP.

CONCLUSION:

Reflexology appears to offer promise as a treatment in the management of LBP; however, an adequately powered trial is required before any more definitive pronouncements are possible.

PMID: 18346622

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

31. The role of massage in sports performance and rehabilitation: current evidence and future direction.

Brummitt J.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509135

 

Source

Pacific University School of Physical Therapy, Hillsboro, Oregon.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports physical therapists. Despite its purported benefits and frequent use, evidence demonstrating its efficacy is scarce.

PURPOSE:

To identify current literature relating to sports massage and its role in effecting an athlete's psychological readiness, in enhancing sports performance, in recovery from exercise and competition, and in the treatment of sports related musculoskeletal injuries.

METHODS:

Electronic databases were used to identify papers relevant to this review. The following keywords were searched: massage, sports injuries, athletic injuries, physical therapy, rehabilitation, delayed onset muscle soreness, sports psychology, sports performance, sports massage, sports recovery, soft tissue mobilization, deep transverse friction massage, pre-event, and post exercise.

RESULTS:

RESEARCH STUDIES PERTAINING TO THE FOLLOWING GENERAL CATEGORIES WERE IDENTIFIED AND REVIEWED: pre-event (physiological and psychological variables), sports performance, recovery, and rehabilitation.

DISCUSSION:

Despite the fact clinical research has been performed, a poor appreciation exists for the appropriate clinical use of sports massage.

CONCLUSION:

Additional studies examining the physiological and psychological effects of sports massage are necessary in order to assist the sports physical therapist in developing and implementing clinically significant evidence based programs or treatments.

PMID: 21509135

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2953308

Free PMC Article

 

32. Chronic neck pain: how to approach treatment.

Borenstein DG.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18173978

 

Source

Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, The George Washington University Medical Center, 2021 K Street NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20006, USA. dborenstein715@aol.com

Abstract

Chronic neck pain is a common patient complaint. Despite its frequency as a clinical problem, there are few evidence-based studies that document efficacy of therapies for neck pain. The treatment of this symptom is based primarily on clinical experience. Preventing the development of chronic neck pain can be achieved by modification of the work environment with chairs that encourage proper musculoskeletal movement. The use of neck supports for sleep and active neck exercises together can improve neck pain. Passive therapies, including massage, acupuncture, mechanical traction, and electrotherapy, have limited benefit when measured by clinical trial results. NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, and pure analgesics are the mainstays of therapy. Local injections of anesthetics with or without soluble corticosteroid preparations offer additional pain relief. The purpose of these agents is to diminish pain to facilitate normal neck movement. Surgical therapy with cervical spine fusion is indicated for the rare patient with intractable neck pain resistant to all nonsurgical therapies.

PMID: 18173978

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

33. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with massage.

Imamura M, Furlan AD, Dryden T, Irvin E.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18164460

 

Source

Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

The management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has proven to be very challenging in North America, as evidenced by its mounting socioeconomic burden. Choosing amongst available nonsurgical therapies can be overwhelming for many stakeholders, including patients, health providers, policy makers, and third-party payers. Although all parties share a common goal and wish to use limited health-care resources to support interventions most likely to result in clinically meaningful improvements, there is often uncertainty about the most appropriate intervention for a particular patient. To help understand and evaluate the various commonly used nonsurgical approaches to CLBP, the North American Spine Society has sponsored this special focus issue of The Spine Journal, titled Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain without surgery. Articles in this special focus issue were contributed by leading spine practitioners and researchers, who were invited to summarize the best available evidence for a particular intervention and encouraged to make this information accessible to nonexperts. Each of the articles contains five sections (description, theory, evidence of efficacy, harms, and summary) with common subheadings to facilitate comparison across the 24 different interventions profiled in this special focus issue, blending narrative and systematic review methodology as deemed appropriate by the authors. It is hoped that articles in this special focus issue will be informative and aid in decision making for the many stakeholders evaluating nonsurgical interventions for CLBP.

PMID: 18164460

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

34. Massage therapy protocol for post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case report.

Zalta J.

Source

Jackson, WY, U.S.A.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The intent of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy in the rehabilitation of post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction patellofemoral pain syndrome. The primary complications following surgical repair of the anterior cruciate ligament-classified as patellofemoral pain syndrome-are hamstring flexion contracture and quadriceps weakness, leading to patellofemoral dysfunction and retropatellar pain.

METHODS:

Treatment included lymphatic drainage, myofascial release, neuromuscular techniques including trigger point release, muscle energy techniques and cross-fiber friction. Orthopedic physical assessment tests were used to chart changes in patellofemoral function and changes in range of motion in the knee during the course of the massage interventions. Subjective reporting on pain level and function were also documented.

RESULTS:

A decrease in pain level, hamstring flexion contracture and lateral tracking of the patella were documented.

CONCLUSION:

Massage therapy was determined to be an effective complementary therapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

PMID: 21589717

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC3091451

Free PMC Article

 

35. Low back pain (acute).

Hall H, McIntosh G.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19445792

 

Source

CBIHealth, Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Low back pain (LBP) affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point. Acute low back pain is usually perceived as self-limiting; however, one year later, as many as 33% of people still have moderate-intensity pain and 15% have severe pain. It has a high recurrence rate; 75% of those with a first episode have a recurrence. Although acute episodes may resolve completely, they may also increase in severity and duration over time. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments for low back pain? What are the effects of local injections for low back pain? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for low back pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS:

We found 34 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics (paracetamol, opioids), back exercises, back schools, bed rest, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, epidural corticosteroid injections, lumbar supports, massage, multidisciplinary treatment programmes, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulation (in the short term), temperature treatments (short wave diathermy, ultrasound, ice, heat), traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

PMID: 19445792

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2907975

Free PMC Article

 

36. Low back pain (chronic).

Hall H, McIntosh G.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19445791

 

Source

Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Over 70% of people in resource-rich countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non-recent-onset patients still experience pain one year later. Many chronic patients who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS:

We found 74 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural steroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulative therapy, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

PMID: 19445791

[PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2908004

Free PMC Article

 

37. Effect of pre-performance lower-limb massage on thirty-meter sprint running.

Goodwin JE, Glaister M, Howatson G, Lockey RA, McInnes G.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18076229

 

Source

School of Human Sciences, St Mary's University College, Waldegrave Road, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, Middlesex, United Kingdom. goodwinj@smuc.ac.uk

Abstract

Massage is a commonly utilized therapy within sports, frequently intended as an ergogenic aid prior to performance. However, evidence as to the efficacy of massage in this respect is lacking, and massage may in some instances reduce force production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of massage on subsequent 30-m sprint running performance. Male university level repeat sprint sports players volunteered for the study (n = 37). After each of 3 treatment conditions, subjects completed a standardized warm-up followed by three 30-m sprint trials in a counterbalanced crossover design. Treatment conditions were 15 minutes of lower-limb massage (M), 15 minutes of placebo ultrasound (PU), and rest (R). Thirty-meter sprint times were recorded (including 10-m split times) for the 3 trials under each condition. Best times at 10 m (M: 1.85 +/- 0.09 seconds, PU: 1.84 +/- 0.11 seconds, R: 1.83 +/- 0.10 seconds) and 30 m (M: 4.41 +/- 0.27 seconds, PU: 4.39 +/- 0.28 seconds, R: 4.39 +/- 0.28 seconds) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). There was no significant treatment, trial, or interaction effect for 10- or 30-m sprint times (p > 0.05). No difference was seen in the location of subjects' best times across the 3 trials (p > 0.05). Relative to placebo or control, the results of this study showed that a controlled 15-minute lower-limb massage administered prior to warm-up had no significant effect on subsequent 30-m sprint performance. Massage remains indicated prior to performance where other benefits, such as reduced muscle spasm and psychological stress, might be served to the athlete.

PMID: 18076229

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

38. Specific sequential myofascial trigger point therapy in the treatment of a patient with myofascial pain syndrome associated with reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

Hong CZ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17987165

 

Abstract

A patient with traumatic rotator cuff tear of the left shoulder developed severe myofascial pain syndrome with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) involving the left upper extremity. He was unable to tolerate any type of manual therapy or needle treatment due to severe allodynia in the whole left upper limb. This patient presented for treatment approximately 6 months after the onset of trauma. Treatment consisting of specific myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy, beginning with desensitization and gentle massage on the MTrP of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, followed by treatment of MTrPs of the wrist-finger extensors and anterior deltoid muscles was commenced. Allodynia was remarkably reduced and further physical therapy with modalities was administered. After 2 weeks of daily MTrP therapy, he received local steroid injection to the left shoulder and continued MTrP therapy 2-3 times per week. Approximately 2 months after the injection the patient was almost pain free with nearly full range of motion in his left shoulder. The mechanism of MTrPs and their association with RSD is discussed in this paper.

PMID: 17987165

[PubMed]

PMCID: PMC2050812

Free PMC Article

 

39. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society.

Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JT Jr, Shekelle P, Owens DK; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians; American College of Physicians; American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guidelines Panel.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17909209

 

Source

Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Erratum in

Abstract

RECOMMENDATION 1: Clinicians should conduct a focused history and physical examination to help place patients with low back pain into 1 of 3 broad categories: nonspecific low back pain, back pain potentially associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis, or back pain potentially associated with another specific spinal cause. The history should include assessment of psychosocial risk factors, which predict risk for chronic disabling back pain (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 2: Clinicians should not routinely obtain imaging or other diagnostic tests in patients with nonspecific low back pain (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 3: Clinicians should perform diagnostic imaging and testing for patients with low back pain when severe or progressive neurologic deficits are present or when serious underlying conditions are suspected on the basis of history and physical examination (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 4: Clinicians should evaluate patients with persistent low back pain and signs or symptoms of radiculopathy or spinal stenosis with magnetic resonance imaging (preferred) or computed tomography only if they are potential candidates for surgery or epidural steroid injection (for suspected radiculopathy) (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 5: Clinicians should provide patients with evidence-based information on low back pain with regard to their expected course, advise patients to remain active, and provide information about effective self-care options (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 6: For patients with low back pain, clinicians should consider the use of medications with proven benefits in conjunction with back care information and self-care. Clinicians should assess severity of baseline pain and functional deficits, potential benefits, risks, and relative lack of long-term efficacy and safety data before initiating therapy (strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). For most patients, first-line medication options are acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. RECOMMENDATION 7: For patients who do not improve with self-care options, clinicians should consider the addition of nonpharmacologic therapy with proven benefits-for acute low back pain, spinal manipulation; for chronic or subacute low back pain, intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise therapy, acupuncture, massage therapy, spinal manipulation, yoga, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or progressive relaxation (weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).

Comment in

Summary for patients in

PMID: 17909209

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

40. Tendinopathies: the most effective physiotherapeutic treatments.

[Article in French]

Gard S.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17850007

 

Source

Physio des Voisins 15, rue des Voisins, 1205 Genève. s.gard@bluewin.ch

Abstract

Tendinopathy, a current injury often falsely named tendinitis, is a lesion due to an excess load of the tendon with impairment of its collagen fibers. The repair of tendinous fibers requires many weeks; the treatment is a determining factor. There are numerous physiotherapy treatments. We have chosen the most usual ones, controlled their evidence of effectiveness according to the literature and shown which techniques with proven efficacy should be used in every tendinopathy treatment: cold, stretching, eccentric training. If these give no satisfactory results, shock waves could be useful. Ultrasonic therapy is worthless although widely used. Serious studies on other techniques are lacking. An evidence based physiotherapy is of prime importance for the future.

PMID: 17850007

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

41. Rhythmical massage therapy in chronic disease: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17718646

 

Source

Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Freiburg, Germany. harald.hamre@ifaemm.de

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Rhythmical massage therapy is used in 24 countries but has not yet been studied in outpatient settings. The objective was to study clinical outcomes in patients receiving rhythmical massage therapy for chronic diseases.

DESIGN:

Prospective 4-year cohort study.

SETTING:

Thirty-six (36) medical practices in Germany.

PARTICIPANTS:

Eighty-five (85) outpatients referred to rhythmical massage therapy.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Disease and Symptom Scores (physicians' and patients' assessment, respectively, 0-10) and SF-36. Disease Score was measured after 6 and 12 months, and other outcomes after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 months.

RESULTS:

Most common indications were musculoskeletal diseases (45% of patients; primarily back and neck pain) and mental disorders (18%, primarily depression and fatigue). Median disease duration at baseline was 2.0 years (interquartile range 0.5-6.0). Median number of rhythmical massage therapy sessions was 12 (interquartile range 9-12), and median therapy duration was 84 (49-119) days. All outcomes improved significantly between baseline and all subsequent follow-ups. From baseline to 12 months, Disease Score improved from (mean +/- standard deviation) 6.30 +/- 2.01 to 2.77 +/- 1.97 (p < 0.001), Symptom Score improved from 5.76 +/- 1.81 to 3.13 +/- 2.20 (p < 0.001), SF-36 Physical Component score improved from 39.55 +/- 9.91 to 45.17 +/- 9.88 (p < 0.001), and SF-36 Mental Component score improved from 39.27 +/- 13.61 to 43.78 +/- 12.32 (p = 0.028). All these improvements were maintained until the last follow-up. Adverse reactions to rhythmical massage therapy occurred in 4 (5%) patients; 2 patients stopped therapy because of adverse reactions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients receiving rhythmical massage therapy had long-term reduction of chronic disease symptoms and improvement of quality of life.

PMID: 17718646

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

42. Self-care behaviors associated with myofascial temporomandibular disorder pain.

Riley JL 3rd, Myers CD, Currie TP, Mayoral O, Harris RG, Fisher JA, Gremillion HA, Robinson ME.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17717958

 

Source

Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32610-3628, USA. jriley@dental.ufl.edu

Abstract

AIMS:

To document the frequency of self-care in a clinical sample of patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain; report the perceived relief and control of pain for each of the self-care behaviors; and to test for associations between the frequency and efficacy of each self-care behavior and pain, depression and sleep quality, as assessed during a clinical visit, and to determine whether the frequency was associated with changes in pain intensity, depression, and sleep quality 30 days later.

METHODS:

The sample consisted of 99 female and 27 male myofascial TMD pain patients who were participants in a multidisciplinary facial pain evaluation program. The subjects participated in a structured interview during a clinical visit and a follow-up telephone interview 30 days later. The interviews included questions about self-care, including resting, relaxation techniques, massage, hot and/or cold packs, home remedies, stretching or exercise, herbal remedies, and the use of vitamins or nutritional supplements for pain.

RESULTS:

The passive self-care behaviors, such as resting when experiencing pain (66%) and relaxation techniques (62%), were the most commonly used. Patients reported that hot or cold packs (5.3, 0-to-10 scale) and massage (4.7) provided the greatest relief from pain, whereas resting (4.9), relaxation (4.8), and massage (4.8) resulted in the greatest ability to control pain. The most striking finding was that initial levels of pain or change in pain were not consistently associated with self-care use; however, psychosocial outcomes of depression and sleep quality were associated with self-care frequency and reported efficacy and improved in relation to patient-reported self-care frequency.

CONCLUSION:

Since people with chronic myofascial TMD pain engage in a range of pain self-care strategies, clinicians need to discuss self-care with patients regularly.

PMID: 17717958

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

43. A randomised controlled study of reflexology for the management of chronic low back pain.

Poole H, Glenn S, Murphy P.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459741

 

Source

Faculty of Health and Applied Social Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK. H.M.Poole@livjm.ac.uk

Abstract

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) continues to rise. However, questions regarding the efficacy of many CAM therapies for CLBP remain unresolved. The present study investigated the effectiveness of reflexology for CLBP. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted. N=243 patients were randomised to one of three groups: reflexology, relaxation, or non-intervention (usual care). All completed a questionnaire booklet before and after the treatment phase, and at six months follow up. This measured their general health status, pain, functioning, coping strategies and mood. After adjusting for pre-treatment scores repeated measures ANCOVA found no significant differences between the groups pre and post treatment on the primary outcome measures of pain and functioning. There was a main effect of pain reduction, irrespective of group. Trends in the data illustrated the pain reduction was greatest in the reflexology group. Thus, the current study does not indicate that adding reflexology to usual GP care for the management of CLBP is any more effective than usual GP care alone.

PMID: 17459741

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

44. Self-care for patients with frozen shoulder.

[Article in Chinese]

Lo ML, Jen PC, Chang HC.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431846

 

Source

Department of nursing, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, ROC. mllou@ctust.edu.tw

Abstract

"Frozen shoulder" syndrome (adhesive capsulitis or pericapsulitis) refers to any kind of shoulder pain or to limited active or passive glenohumeral joint motions. Treatment options include both Chinese and western medical therapies. However, the key to recovery lies in self-care. This article addresses both Chinese and western treatments for frozen shoulder and suggests optimal treatments and self-care approaches for this debilitating condition. Health professionals can help patients ease their pain and increase joint activity in order to prevent frozen shoulder from turning into chronic adhesive capsulitis.

PMID: 17431846

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

45. Myofascial trigger points.

Lavelle ED, Lavelle W, Smith HS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17321283

 

Source

Department of Anesthesiology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Abstract

Painful conditions of the musculoskeletal system, including myofascial pain syndrome, constitute some of the most important chronic problems encountered in a clinical practice. A myofascial trigger points is a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena. Trigger points may be relieved through noninvasive measures, such as spray and stretch, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, physical therapy, and massage. Invasive treatments for myofascial trigger points include injections with local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or botulism toxin or dry needling. The etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of myofascial trigger points are addressed in this article.

PMID: 17321283

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

46. Exercise + massage beat steroids for tennis elbow.

[No authors listed]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17297645

 

PMID: 17297645

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

47. Massage for mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review.

Ezzo J, Haraldsson BG, Gross AR, Myers CD, Morien A, Goldsmith CH, Bronfort G, Peloso PM; Cervical Overview Group.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17268268

 

Source

JPS Enterprises, Baltimore, MD, USA. jeanetteezzo@prodigy.net

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN:

Systematic review.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the effects of massage on pain, function, patient satisfaction, cost of care, and adverse events in adults with neck pain.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:

Neck pain is common, disabling, and costly. Massage is a commonly used modality for the treatment of neck pain.

METHODS:

We searched several databases without language restriction from their inception to September 2004. We included randomized and quasirandomized trials. Two reviewers independently identified studies, abstracted data, and assessed quality. We calculated the relative risks and standardized mean differences on primary outcomes. Trials could not be statistically pooled because of heterogeneity in treatment and control groups. Therefore, a levels-of-evidence approach was used to synthesize results.

RESULTS:

Overall, 19 trials were included, with 12/19 receiving low-quality scores. Descriptions of the massage intervention, massage professional's credentials, or experience were frequently missing. Six trials examined massage as a stand-alone treatment. The results were inconclusive. Results were also inconclusive in 14 trials that used massage as part of a multimodal intervention because none were designed such that the relative contribution of massage could be ascertained.

CONCLUSIONS:

No recommendations for practice can be made at this time because the effectiveness of massage for neck pain remains uncertain. Pilot studies are needed to characterize massage treatment (frequency, duration, number of sessions, and massage technique) and establish the optimal treatment to be used in subsequent larger trials that examine the effect of massage as either a stand-alone treatment or part of a multimodal intervention. For multimodal interventions, factorial designs are needed to determine the relative contribution of massage. Future reports of trials should improve reporting of the concealment of allocation, blinding of outcome assessor, adverse events, and massage characteristics. Standards of reporting for massage interventions, similar to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, are needed. Both short and long-term follow-up are needed.

PMID: 17268268

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

48. Effect of therapeutic exercise and sleeping neck support on patients with chronic neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

Helewa A, Goldsmith CH, Smythe HA, Lee P, Obright K, Stitt L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17216683

 

Source

School of Physical Therapy, Elborn College, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the effects of therapeutic exercises and sleeping neck support contoured pillows on patients with chronic neck pain.

METHODS:

Using a factorial design in a prospective clinical trial, participants were equally allocated at random to 4 treatment groups in the study: (1) placebo control, of hot or cold packs and massage; (2) sleeping neck support pillow and placebo; (3) active neck exercises and placebo; and (4) combined exercise and sleeping neck support pillow and placebo. Participants were treated by physical therapists over a 6 week period and assessed by masked independent assessors at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 weeks, and 12 months, with the 12 week assessment being the primary decision time. The primary outcome measure was the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ).

RESULTS:

For the 128/151 (85%) participants tested at 12 weeks, the NPQ descriptive statistics of count, mean (standard deviation) were: Initial: 128, 31.0 (11.3) at Week 12; All: 128, 18.5 (11.6); Control: 34, 18.6 (10.0); Pillow: 32, 21.5 (13.1); Active neck exercises: 29, 20.1 (11.6); and Combined: 33, 14.1 (10.6). Factorial analysis of variance showed that the main effects of Exercise (p = 0.146) and Pillow (p = 0.443) were not statistically significant; but the interaction of Exercise plus Pillow (p = 0.029) was statistically significant and clinically meaningful.

CONCLUSION:

Treatment by physiotherapists trained to teach both exercises and the use of a neck support pillow achieved the most favorable benefit for participants with chronic neck pain; either strategy alone was not more effective than a control regimen. Time was an important cofactor.

PMID: 17216683

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

49. Exercise proves effective in a systematic review of work-related complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder.

Verhagen AP, Karels C, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Feleus A, Dahaghin S, Burdorf A, Koes BW.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17208116

 

Source

Department of General Practice, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. a.verhagen@erasmusmc.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Interventions such as physiotherapy and ergonomic adjustments play a major role in the treatment of most work-related complaints of the arm, neck, and/or shoulder (CANS). We evaluated whether conservative interventions have a significant impact on outcomes for work-related CANS.

STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:

A systematic review was conducted. Only (randomized) trials studying interventions for patients suffering from work-related CANS were included. Interventions may include exercises, relaxation, physical applications, and workplace adjustments. Two authors independently selected the trials, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data.

RESULTS:

We included 26 studies (in total 2,376 patients); 23 studies included patients with chronic nonspecific complaints. Over 30 interventions were evaluated and 7 main subgroups of interventions could be determined, of which the subgroup "exercises" was the largest one. Overall, the quality of the studies appeared to be poor.

CONCLUSION:

There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of exercises when compared to massage, adding breaks during computer work, massage as add-on treatment to manual therapy, manual therapy as add-on treatment to exercises, and some keyboards in people with carpal tunnel syndrome when compared to other keyboards or placebo. For other interventions no clear effectiveness could be demonstrated.

PMID: 17208116

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

50. Carpal tunnel syndrome.

Ashworth NL.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19454094

 

Source

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. However, the severity of symptoms and signs does not often correlate well with the extent of nerve damage. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, surgical treatments, and postoperative treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to December 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS:

We found 54 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture; diuretics; carpal tunnel release surgery (open, and endoscopic); internal neurolysis; local and systemic corticosteroids; massage therapy; nerve and tendon gliding exercises; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; pyridoxine; therapeutic ultrasound; and wrist splints.

PMID: 19454094

[PubMed - in process]

 

51. Massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial.

Perlman AI, Sabina A, Williams AL, Njike VY, Katz DL.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17159021

 

Source

Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, School of Health Realted Profession, Newark, NJ 07107-1709, USA. a.perlman@umdnj.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Massage therapy is an attractive treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of massage therapy for OA of the knee.

METHODS:

Sixty-eight adults with radiographically confirmed OA of the knee were assigned either to treatment (twice-weekly sessions of standard Swedish massage in weeks 1-4 and once-weekly sessions in weeks 5-8) or to control (delayed intervention). Primary outcomes were changes in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and functional scores and the visual analog scale of pain assessment. The sample provided 80% statistical power to detect a 20-point difference between groups in the change from baseline on the WOMAC and visual analog scale, with a 2-tailed alpha of .05.

RESULTS:

The group receiving massage therapy demonstrated significant improvements in the mean (SD) WOMAC global scores (-17.44 [23.61] mm; P < .001), pain (-18.36 [23.28]; P < .001), stiffness (-16.63 [28.82] mm; P < .001), and physical function domains (-17.27 [24.36] mm; P < .001) and in the visual analog scale of pain assessment (-19.38 [28.16] mm; P < .001), range of motion in degrees (3.57 [13.61]; P = .03), and time to walk 50 ft (15 m) in seconds (-1.77 [2.73]; P < .01). Findings were unchanged in multivariable models controlling for demographic factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage therapy seems to be efficacious in the treatment of OA of the knee. Further study of cost effectiveness and duration of treatment effect is clearly warranted. .

PMID: 17159021

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

52. Dynamics of neuromuscular system recovery as a consequence of various massage techniques as determined from electroneuromyography parameters.

[Article in Russian]

Solodkov AS, Povareshchenkova IuA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17100348

 

PMID: 17100348

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

53. Massage for mechanical neck disorders.

Haraldsson BG, Gross AR, Myers CD, Ezzo JM, Morien A, Goldsmith C, Peloso PM, Bronfort G; Cervical Overview Group.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16856066

 

Source

North Surrey Massage Therapy Clinic, 201-10366 136A Street, Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 5R3. bodhigharaldsson@yahoo.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mechanical neck disorders (MND) are common, disabling and costly. Massage is a commonly used modality for the treatment of neck pain.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects of massage on pain, function, patient satisfaction and cost of care in adults with neck pain. To document adverse effects of treatment.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and ICL databases were electronically searched, without language restriction, from their inception to September 2004

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Studies using random or quasi-random assignment were included.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two reviewers independently conducted citation identification, study selection, data abstraction and methodological quality assessment. Using a random-effects model, we calculated the relative risk and standardized mean difference.

MAIN RESULTS:

Nineteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the methodological quality was low, with 12/19 assessed as low-quality studies. Trials could not be statistically pooled because of heterogeneity in treatment and control groups. Therefore, a levels-of-evidence approach was used to synthesize results. Assessment of the clinical applicability of the trials showed that the participant characteristics were well reported, but neither the descriptions of the massage intervention nor the credentials or experience of the massage professionals were well reported. Six trials examined massage as a stand-alone treatment. The results were inconsistent. Of the 14 trials that used massage as part of a multimodal intervention, none were designed such that the relative contribution of massage could be ascertained. Therefore, the role of massage in multimodal treatments remains unclear.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

No recommendations for practice can be made at this time because the effectiveness of massage for neck pain remains uncertain. Pilot studies are needed to characterize massage treatment (frequency, duration, number of sessions, and massage technique) and establish the optimal treatment to be used in subsequent larger trials that examine the effect of massage as either a stand-alone treatment or part of a multimodal intervention. For multimodal interventions, factorial designs are needed to determine the relative contribution of massage. Future reports of trials should improve reporting of the concealment of allocation, blinding of outcome assessor, adverse events and massage characteristics. Standards of reporting for massage interventions, similar to CONSORT, are needed. Both short- and long-term follow-up are needed.

PMID: 16856066

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

54. Comparative study of hands-on therapy with active exercises vs education with active exercises for the management of upper back pain.

Pesco MS, Chosa E, Tajima N.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16584949

 

Source

Department of Occupational Therapy, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka City, Kyushu, Japan. unkyo31@yahoo.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to compare hands-on therapy, including heat, massage, and active exercises with postural education that emphasized increased self-efficacy and postural self-awareness along with education about the physiology of the disorder, and prescribed daily active exercises.

SUBJECTS:

Twenty-four randomly selected women, 12 custodians and 12 students, with neck and shoulder pain and stiffness.

METHODS:

All subjects received a medical examination and x-ray before the study to rule out any pre-existing neurologic deficits and an evaluation that included history taking and self-reporting of pain according to a numeric pain scale. Student participants received education and exercise instructions to be continued daily. The custodial workers received once-per-week hands-on treatment.

RESULTS:

Data were compared using a nonparametric analysis (Wilcoxon signed rank test) and showed evidence of statistically significant reductions in neck, shoulder, and back stiffness and shoulder muscle tension for most of the study subjects.

CONCLUSION:

Treatment of repetitive stress injuries that combines maintenance of daily active exercises prescribed and modeled by a professional therapist, which emphasize postural awareness to correct poor posture and provide a basic physiological understanding of the disorder, is as crucial to reducing upper back and neck pain and stiffness as hands-on therapy with active exercise provided in a clinical setting.

PMID: 16584949

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

55. The diagnosis and treatment of chronic back pain by acupuncturists, chiropractors, and massage therapists.

Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Deyo RA, Erro JH, Hrbek A, Davis RB, Eisenberg DM.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16514321

 

Source

Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. sherman.k@ghc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the diagnostic and therapeutic content of visits for chronic back pain to acupuncturists, chiropractors, and massage therapists.

METHODS:

Randomly selected acupuncturists, chiropractors, and massage therapists in two states were surveyed, and then eligible providers collected data on consecutive patient visits. The authors analyzed information on diagnosis, treatment, and self-care recommendations for chronic back pain patients collected during consecutive patient visits to these complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers.

RESULTS:

Back pain was the most common reason for visits to each of these providers, with chronic back pain representing about 10% of visits to acupuncturists, 20% of visits to chiropractors, and 12% of visits to massage therapists. Diagnosis by acupuncturists included traditional questioning and inspecting the patient as well as pulse and tongue assessment and palpation of the acupuncture meridians. Treatments usually included acupuncture needling, heat of some sort, and other modalities, such as East Asian massage, herbs, and/or cupping (application of suction cups to the skin). Lifestyle recommendations were common, particularly exercise and dietary counseling. Visits to chiropractors usually included spinal and muscle/soft tissue examinations and spinal manipulation. Soft tissue techniques (eg, "active release"), stretch or strength training, and home exercise recommendations were much less common. Massage therapists usually performed a tissue assessment and commonly assessed range of motion. They emphasized Swedish, deep tissue, and trigger point massage techniques and usually made self-care recommendations, particularly increased water intake, hot/cold therapy, exercise, and body awareness.

CONCLUSION:

Information on the care patients routinely receive from CAM providers will help physicians better understand these increasingly popular forms of care.

PMID: 16514321

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

56. The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving.

Durkin JL, Harvey A, Hughson RL, Callaghan JP.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16393802

 

Source

Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada. durkinjl@healthy.uwaterloo.ca

Abstract

An increasing dependence of society on automobiles for both work and leisure and the corresponding increase in time spent seated in the car has been correlated with a greater risk of low back pain and absence from work (Porter and Gyi 2002). This study examined the effects of three types of lumbar massage units on seating comfort, muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood flow and driving performance during a 1 h simulated driving task. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the right and left thoracic and lumbar erector spinae musculature. Average EMG (AEMG), mean power frequency (MPF), gaps and amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) parameters were analysed from the three massage seats and compared to a control seat. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and skin temperature from the right thoracic and lumbar erector spinae were used as an indication of muscle oxygenation and blood flow throughout the driving task. Ratings of perceived discomfort were used to assess driver discomfort, and driving performance was assessed by calculating mean lap times for the duration of each driving trial. The results showed statistically significant increases in skin temperature compared with the control seat after 60 min of driving. The NIRS results reflected these trends although the results were not statistically significant. AEMG and MPF measures showed no significant differences between the seats. MPF measures were found to increase over time, effects attributed to increases in muscle temperature. Gaps and APDF analyses revealed greater rest times and lower activation levels, respectively, with the control seat, which could result in increased loading of passive structures. This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of lumbar massage systems in increasing muscle blood flow and oxygenation. Although EMG parameters were not significantly different, the trends support the significant blood flow results. Future research should include longer driving times and adjustments in EMG measures to account for the effects of increasing muscle temperature on AEMG and MPF measures.

PMID: 16393802

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

57. Preliminary evidence of the short-term effectiveness of alternative treatments for low back pain.

Davis KG, Kotowski SE.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340089

 

Source

Low Back Biomechanics and Workplace Stress Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. kermit.davis@uc.edu

Abstract

In recent years, there has been increased popularity for use of alternative treatment modalities for low back pain with limited investigation into whether they are effective in returning the worker to normal functionality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short-term impact on the restoration of the functional ability of common treatment modalities including physical therapy, acupuncture, chiropractic treatment, and massage therapy. A within subjects design was used that compared a baseline assessment to three follow-up assessments: immediately following treatment, two days and seven days post treatment. Individuals suffering from low back pain were recruited from local clinics that specialize in one of the four treatment modalities. Twenty-four individuals who were suffering from low back pain and had started one of the treatment modalities were recruited into the study. Three-dimensional motions (ROM, velocity, and acceleration) during a standardized functional capacity protocol were measured prior to and during three follow-up periods. The results show the effectiveness of the treatments was dependent upon time and were predominantly in the non-sagittal motion planes (velocities and accelerations). Individual subjective pain levels also indicate all the treatment modalities were effective after the 1-week follow-up. Findings suggest those modalities primarily focused on the back musculature (acupuncture, massage, physical therapy) were more effective with respect to functional capacity restoration. The current results provide a quantitative evaluation, based upon trunk dynamics, of the effectiveness of these four treatment modalities.

PMID: 16340089

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

58. The efficacy of ice massage in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage.

Howatson G, Gaze D, van Someren KA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293154

 

Source

School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Kingston-upon-Thames, UK. k972725@kingston.ac.uk

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to, firstly, examine the effects of repeated applications of ice massage on the indirect markers associated with muscle damage using a within-subjects cross-over design and secondly, to examine how ice massage affects muscle function in both static and dynamic contractions following unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Twelve males performed damaging exercise on two separate occasions. The protocol consisted of three sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of the elbow flexors using isokinetic dynamometry. Subjects were randomly assigned to an ice massage group or placebo group and received treatments immediately post-exercise, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscle function (maximal isometric, slow and fast isokinetic contractions), creatine kinase, myoglobin, muscle soreness, limb girth and range of motion were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Significant time effects were observed for all dependent variables (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments. Ice massage is ineffective in reducing the indirect markers associated with exercise-induced muscle damage and enhancing recovery of muscle function in male exercisers unaccustomed to eccentric biased exercise.

PMID: 16293154

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

59. Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness, swelling, and recovery of muscle function.

Zainuddin Z, Newton M, Sacco P, Nosaka K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16284637

 

Source

Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) describes muscle pain and tenderness that typically develop several hours postexercise and consist of predominantly eccentric muscle actions, especially if the exercise is unfamiliar. Although DOMS is likely a symptom of eccentric-exercise-induced muscle damage, it does not necessarily reflect muscle damage. Some prophylactic or therapeutic modalities may be effective only for alleviating DOMS, whereas others may enhance recovery of muscle function without affecting DOMS.

OBJECTIVE:

To test the hypothesis that massage applied after eccentric exercise would effectively alleviate DOMS without affecting muscle function.

DESIGN:

We used an arm-to-arm comparison model with 2 independent variables (control and massage) and 6 dependent variables (maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness). A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t tests were used to examine differences in changes of the dependent variable over time (before, immediately and 30 minutes after exercise, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days postexercise) between control and massage conditions.

SETTING:

University laboratory.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:

Ten healthy subjects (5 men and 5 women) with no history of upper arm injury and no experience in resistance training.

INTERVENTION(S):

Subjects performed 10 sets of 6 maximal isokinetic (90 degrees x s(-1)) eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with each arm on a dynamometer, separated by 2 weeks. One arm received 10 minutes of massage 3 hours after eccentric exercise; the contralateral arm received no treatment.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic elbow flexor strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness.

RESULTS:

Delayed-onset muscle soreness was significantly less for the massage condition for peak soreness in extending the elbow joint and palpating the brachioradialis muscle (P < .05). Soreness while flexing the elbow joint (P = .07) and palpating the brachialis muscle (P = .06) was also less with massage. Massage treatment had significant effects on plasma creatine kinase activity, with a significantly lower peak value at 4 days postexercise (P < .05), and upper arm circumference, with a significantly smaller increase than the control at 3 and 4 days postexercise (P < .05). However, no significant effects of massage on recovery of muscle strength and ROM were evident.

CONCLUSIONS:

Massage was effective in alleviating DOMS by approximately 30% and reducing swelling, but it had no effects on muscle function.

Comment in

PMID: 16284637

[PubMed]

PMCID: PMC1250256

Free PMC Article

 

60. Dynamic soft tissue mobilisation increases hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects.

Hopper D, Deacon S, Das S, Jain A, Riddell D, Hall T, Briffa K.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16118294

 

Source

Curtin University of Technology, Shenton Park, WA 6008, Australia. d.hopper@curtin.edu.au

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dynamic soft tissue mobilisation (STM) on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects.

METHODS:

Forty five males volunteered to participate in a randomised, controlled single blind design study. Volunteers were randomised to either control, classic STM, or dynamic STM intervention. The control group was positioned prone for 5 min. The classic STM group received standard STM techniques performed in a neutral prone position for 5 min. The dynamic STM group received all elements of classic STM followed by distal to proximal longitudinal strokes performed during passive, active, and eccentric loading of the hamstring. Only specific areas of tissue tightness were treated during the dynamic phase. Hamstring flexibility was quantified as hip flexion angle (HFA) which was the difference between the total range of straight leg raise and the range of pelvic rotation. Pre- and post-testing was conducted for the subjects in each group. A one-way ANCOVA followed by pairwise post-hoc comparisons was used to determine whether change in HFA differed between groups. The alpha level was set at 0.05.

RESULTS:

Increase in hamstring flexibility was significantly greater in the dynamic STM group than either the control or classic STM groups with mean (standard deviation) increase in degrees in the HFA measures of 4.7 (4.8), -0.04 (4.8), and 1.3 (3.8), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Dynamic soft tissue mobilisation (STM) significantly increased hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects.

PMID: 16118294

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1725327

Free PMC Article

 

61. Complementary and alternative therapies for low back pain.

van Tulder MW, Furlan AD, Gagnier JJ.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15949781

 

Source

Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. mw.vantulder@vumc.nl

Abstract

The support for the principles of evidence-based medicine has increased within the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The objective of this chapter is to determine the effectiveness of CAM therapies compared to placebo, no intervention, or other interventions for acute/subacute and chronic non-specific low back pain (LBP). Results from Cochrane reviews on acupuncture, botanical medicine, massage, neuroreflexotherapy, and spinal manipulation have been used. The results showed that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment or sham treatment for chronic LBP but that there are no differences in effectiveness compared with other conventional therapies. Specific botanical medicines can be effective for acute episodes of chronic non-specific LBP in terms of short-term improvement in pain and functional status; long-term efficacy was not assessed. Massage seems more beneficial than sham treatment for chronic non-specific LBP but effectiveness compared with other conventional therapies is inconclusive. Neuroreflexotherapy appears to be more effective than sham treatment or standard care for chronic non-specific LBP. Spinal manipulation was more effective than sham manipulation or ineffective therapies, and equally effective as other conventional therapies. In summary, the results on CAM therapies for (acute episodes of) chronic LBP are promising but more evidence on the relative cost-effectiveness compared to conventional treatments is needed.

PMID: 15949781

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

62. Massage therapy versus traditional therapy for low back pain relief: implications for holistic nursing practice.

Melancon B, Miller LH.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15923937

 

Source

Earl K. Long Hospital, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Abstract

This study explored whether there is a significant difference in perceived low back pain relief between patients receiving massage versus traditional therapy, using a 2-variable by 3-variable fully crossed, factorial, comparative research design. Statistical results showed slightly more efficacy for traditional therapy; however, the additional benefits of massage add to its value for holistic nursing practice.

PMID: 15923937

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

63. Observation on the effect of massage in treating cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type under SCTA image controlling.

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Nov;24(11):1020-1.

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang J, Fang BH, Wu LH, Chen P, Wu L.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15609606

 

Source

drzh@hzcnc.com

PMID: 15609606

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

64. Massage therapy for the orthopaedic patient: a review.

Dryden T, Baskwill A, Preyde M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15554470

 

Source

School of Applied Arts and Health Sciences, Centennial College, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

The effectiveness of massage therapy for the orthopaedic patient has not been documented; thus, a review of the published literature was warranted. A considerable proportion of the population experience orthopaedic problems, and many use massage therapy. A review and analysis of the literature between January 1973 and June 2003 yielded tentative results. It appears that massage therapy may be effective for orthopaedic patients with low back problems and potentially beneficial for patients with other orthopaedic problems. Massage therapy appears to be safe, to have high patient satisfaction, and to reduce pain and dysfunction.

PMID: 15554470

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

65. The effects of slow-stroke back massage on anxiety and shoulder pain in elderly stroke patients.

Mok E, Woo CP.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15519938

 

Source

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. hsemok@inet.polyu.edu.hk

Abstract

This study explores the effect of slow-stroke back massages on anxiety and shoulder pain in hospitalized elderly patients with stroke. An experimental quantitative design was conducted, comparing the scores for self-reported pain, anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate and pain of two groups of patients before and immediately after, and three days after the intervention. The intervention consisted of ten minutes of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) for seven consecutive evenings. One hundred and two patients participated in the entire study and were randomly assigned to a massage group or a control group. The results revealed that the massage intervention significantly reduced the patients' levels of pain perception and anxiety. In addition to the subjective measures, all physiological measures (systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate) changed positively, indicating relaxation. The prolonged effect of SSBM was also evident, as reflected by the maintenance of the psycho-physiological parameters three days after the massage. The patients' perceptions of SSBM, determined from a questionnaire, revealed positive support for SSBM for elderly stroke patients. The authors suggest that SSBM is an effective nursing intervention for reducing shoulder pain and anxiety in elderly patients with stroke. From a nursing perspective, this nursing practice provides a challenge and an opportunity for nurses and family caregivers to blend alternative therapies with technology to provide more individualized and holistic patient care.

PMID: 15519938

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

66. Efficacy of massage therapy in chronic pain: a pragmatic randomized trial.

Walach H, Güthlin C, König M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14736355

 

Source

Department of Environmental Medicine and Hospital Hygiene, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetterstrasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany. walach@ukl.uni-freiburg.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although classic massage is used widely in Germany and elsewhere for treating chronic pain conditions, there are no randomized controlled trials (RCT).

DESIGN:

Pragmatic RCT of classic massage compared to standard medical care (SMC) in chronic pain conditions of back, neck, shoulders, head and limbs.

OUTCOME MEASURE:

Pain rating (nine-point Likert-scale; predefined main outcome criterion) at pretreatment, post-treatment, and 3 month follow-up, as well as pain adjective list, depression, anxiety, mood, and body concept.

RESULTS:

Because of political and organizational problems, only 29 patients were randomized, 19 to receive massage, 10 to SMC. Pain improved significantly in both groups, but only in the massage group was it still significantly improved at follow-up. Depression and anxiety were improved significantly by both treatments, yet only in the massage group maintained at follow-up.

CONCLUSION:

Despite its limitation resulting from problems with numbers and randomization this study shows that massage can be at least as effective as SMC in chronic pain syndromes. Relative changes are equal, but tend to last longer and to generalize more into psychologic domains. Because this is a pilot study, the results need replication, but our experiences might be useful for other researchers.

PMID: 14736355

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

67. Alternative aid for aching backs. Massage and spinal manipulation are about as effective as mainstream methods.

Health News. 2003 Aug;9(8):4.

Weinstein JN.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12971315

 

PMID:

12971315

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Int J Palliat Nurs. 2003 Aug;9(8):336-42; discussion 342.

 

68. The experience of manual lymph drainage as an aspect of treatment for lymphoedema.

Woods M.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12968119

 

Source

Lymphoedema Services, The Royal Marsden Hospital, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the patient's experience of a course of manual lymph drainage (MLD for cancer-related lymphoedema. The study used an interpretative approach. Six patients took part in unstructured interviews with the researcher 1 month after a 3-week course of daily MLD, provided by a trained MLD therapist. The researcher also recorded personal observations and thoughts throughout the study period. A number of themes emerged from the data illustrating patients' hopes and expectations regarding MLD. These were often linked with a desired response to treatment. Feelings of relaxation and calm during and after daily MLD were described and the treatment was also found to allow patients time-out to sleep, think or reflect. This small study adds to the limited body of knowledge about MLD and will help lymphoedema therapists identify how this treatment may influence the care of their patients and how resources could be allocated in its future provision.

PMID: 12968119

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

69. A trial into the effectiveness of soft tissue massage in the treatment of shoulder pain.

van den Dolder PA, Roberts DL.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12952518

 

Source

Physiotherapy Department, Auburn Hospital, Auburn, NSW 2144, Australia. paul_vandendolder@wsahs.nsw.gov.au.

Abstract

The purpose of this single blinded randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of soft tissue massage on range of motion, reported pain and reported function in patients with shoulder pain. Twenty-nine patients referred to physiotherapy for shoulder pain were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received six treatments of soft tissue massage around the shoulder (n = 15) or to a control group that received no treatment while on the waiting list for two weeks (n = 14). Measurements were taken both before and after the experimental period by a blinded assessor. Active range of motion was measured for flexion, abduction and hand-behind-back movements. Pain was assessed with the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ) and functional ability was assessed with the Patient Specific Functional Disability Measure (PSFDM). The treatment group showed significant improvements in range of motion compared with the control group for abduction (mean 42.2 degrees, 95% CI 24.1 to 60.4 degrees), flexion (mean 22.6 degrees, 95% CI 12.4 to 32.8 degrees) and hand-behind-back (mean 11.0 cm improvement, 95% CI 6.3 to 15.6 cm). Massage reduced pain as reported on the descriptive section of the SFMPQ by a mean of 4.9 points (95% CI 2.5 to 7.2 points) and on the visual analogue scale by an average of 26.5 mm (95% CI 5.3 to 47.6 mm), and it improved reported function on the PSFDM by a mean of 8.6 points (95% CI 4.9 to 12.3 points). We conclude that soft tissue massage around the shoulder is effective in improving range of motion, pain and function in patients with shoulder pain. The mechanisms behind these effects remain unclear.

Comment in

PMID: 12952518

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text

 

70. An unusual complication: prolonged myopathy due to an alternative medical therapy with heat and massage.

Tanriover MD, Guven GS, Topeli A.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19668045

 

Source

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. mdurusu@hacettepe.edu.tr

Abstract

A 66-year-old male presented with swelling of the neck and arms, which was limiting his daily activities. Serum muscle enzymes were increased. A detailed history revealed that the patient received 10 cycles of infrared heat and massage therapy approximately 1 month before his first visit to the outpatient clinic. The swelling of the extremities began on day 11 of therapy, and the pain became unbearable. He was followed up with analgesics. There was a significant decrease in the muscle enzymes and a subjective improvement of 60-70% one month after discharge. Alternative therapies may have serious complications, and patients usually do not report them unless asked specifically.

PMID: 19668045

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]